The Predicting Effects of Self-Efficacy, Self-Esteem and Prior Travel Experience on Sociocultural Adaptation Among International Students

Keywords: international students, self-efficacy, self-esteem, sociocultural adaptation

Abstract

Personal and situational factors contribute to international students’ sociocultural adjustment in a host society. Thus this study attempts to determine the roles of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and previous travel experience on sociocultural adjustment. The sample for this study constituted 328 undergraduate and postgraduate international students, studying in three Chinese universities. Participants completed a set of tests measuring their sociocultural adjustment, self-efficacy and self-esteem, as well as answered demographic questions. Hierarchical multiple regression and a PROCESS macro were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that prior travel experience, self-efficacy, and self-esteem significantly predicted sociocultural adaptation. In particular, self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and sociocultural adaptation. Limitations and future study directions and implications for the findings are discussed.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Werede Tareke Gebregergis, Asmara College of Education, Eritrea

WEREDE GEBREGERGIS, MSc in Applied Psychology, is a lecturer in the Department of Psychology, Asmara College of Education, Eritrea and former master’s student at Central China Normal University. His research interests include employee work commitment, satisfaction and performance; employees’ psychological and organizational empowerment; positive organizational behavior; stress, coping, and burnout at workplace; and international students’ adjustment issues, mental health issues, and educational studies.

Desbele Tekie Mehari, Asmara College of Education, Eritrea

DESBELE MEHARI is an assistant lecturer in the Department of Educational Administration, Asmara College of Education, Eritrea. Currently, he is pursuing his master’s degree in Comparative Education at Central China Normal University. His research interests include comparative education, students’ learning motivation, educational leadership and management, international students’ adjustment issues, students’ special educational needs, child and maternal care, and child development. 

Dawit Yikealo Gebretinsae, Asmara College of Education, Eritrea

DAWIT GEBRETINSAE is an assistant lecturer in the Department of Psychology, Asmara College of Education, Eritrea. Currently, he is pursuing his master’s degree in Applied Psychology at Central China Normal University. His research interests include stress and coping, self-determination and motivation, international students’ adjustment issues, teaching and learning, students’ special educational needs, and child and adolescent development

Aster Habte Tesfamariam, Asmara College of Education, Eritrea

ASTER TESFAMARIAM, MEd in Educational Management and Economics, is a lecturer in the Department of Educational Administration, Asmara College of Education, Eritrea and former master’s student at Central China Normal University. Her research interests include students’ learning motivation, educational leadership and management, cross-cultural studies, learner-centered and interactive pedagogy, and gender and education.

References

Ang, S., & VanDyne, L. (2008). Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measures and applications. M.E. Sharpe.

Baldwin, M. W., Baccus, J. R., & Fitzsimons, G. M. (2004). Self-esteem and the dual processing of interpersonal contingencies. Self and Identity, 3(2), 81–93. doi:10.1080/13576500342000068

Bandura, A. (1995). Exercise of personal and collective efficacy in changing societies In A. Bandura (Ed.), Self-efficacy in changing societies (pp. 1–45). Cambridge University Press.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. W.H. Freeman and Company.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173

Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46(1), 5–34. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.1997.tb01087.x

Black, S. J., Mendenhall, E. M., & Oddou, G. (1991). Toward a comprehensive model of international adjustment: An integration of multiple theoretical perspective. The Academy of Management Review, 16(2), 291–317. doi:10.2307/258863

Bosson, J., & Swann, W. B., Jr. (2009). Self-esteem: Nature, origins, and consequences. In R. H. M. Leary (Ed.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 527–546). Guilford.

Brisset, C., Safdar, S., Lewis, J. R., & Sabatier, C. (2010). Psychological and sociocultural adaptation of university students in France: The case of Vietnamese international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34(4), 413–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2010.02.009

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Human autonomy: The basis for true self-esteem In M. H. Kernis (Ed.), Efficacy, Agency, and Self-Esteem (pp. 31–49). Springer.

Dong, Q., Koper, R. J., & Collaço, C. M. (2008). Social intelligence, self-esteem, and intercultural communication sensitivity. Intercultural Communication Studies XVII: 2 2008, 162–172.

Dzansi, D. Y., & Monnapula-mapesela, M. (2012). An analysis of the adjustment problems of international students in a South African university. Journal for New Generation Sciences, 10(3), 28–49.

Garcia, M. S. S. (2015). The socio-cultural adaptation, openness to culture and success ofsojourn of foreign (Japanese) students in Tarlac City, Philippines. Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business, Economics, Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference). ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 (Paper ID: V517). http://globalbizresearch.org/Vietnam_Conference/pdf/V517.pdf

Gebhard, J. G. (2012). International students’ adjustment problems and behaviors. Journal of International Students, 2(2), 184–193.

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide andreference. 11.0 update (4th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Goldstein, S. B., & Kim, R. I. (2006). Predictors of US college students’ participation in study abroad programs: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(4), 507–521. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.10.001

Gravetter, F., & Wallnau, L. (2014). Essentials of statistics for the behavioral sciences (8th ed.). Wadsworth.

Hajloo, N. (2014). Relationships between self-efficacy, self-esteem and procrastination in undergraduate psychology students. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 8(3), 42–49.

Hechanova-Alampay, R., Beehr, T. A., Christiansen, N. D., & Van Horn, R. K. (2002). Adjustment and strain among domestic and international student sojourners: A longitudinal study. School Psychology International, 23(4), 458–474. doi:10.1177/0143034302234007

Jex, S. M., & Britt, T. W. (2008). Organizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach (2nd ed.). John Wiley and Sons.

Kernis, M. H. (2003). Toward a conceptualization of optimal self-esteem. Psychological Inquiry, 14(1), 1–26.

Koch, E. J. (2002). Relational schemas, self-esteem, and the processing of social stimuli. Self and Identity, 1(3), 271–279. doi:10.1080/152988602760124883

Li, A., & Gasser, M. B. (2005). Predicting Asian international students’ sociocultural adjustment: A test of two mediation models. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(5), 561–576. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.06.003

Liu, Y., Chen, X., Li, S., Yu, B., Wang, Y., & Yan, H. (2016). Path analysis of acculturative stress components and their relationship with depression among international students in China. Stress and Health, 32(5), 524–532. doi:10.1002/smi.2658

Masgoret, A. M., & Ward, C. (2006). The cultural learning approach to acculturation In W. J. Berry & L. D. Sam (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 58–77). Cambridge University Press.

Mesidor, J. K., & Sly, K. F. (2016). Factors that contribute to the adjustment of international students. Journal of International Students, 6(1), 262–282.

Mustaffa, C. S., & Ilias, M. (2013). Relationship between students adjustment factors and cross-cultural adjustment: A survey at the Northern University of Malaysia. Intercultural Communication Studies, 1(2013), 279–300.

Ngwira, F. F., Mapoma, H. W. T., Hong, J., Sariyo, S., & Kondowe, W. (2015). Intercultural communication competence and acculturation among international students in Central China. Intercultural Communication Studies 2015, XXIV(2), 61–83.

Nordstrom, A. H., Goguen, L. M. S., & Hiester, M. (2014). The effect of social anxiety and self‐esteem on college adjustment, academics, and retention. Journal of College Counseling, 17(1), 48–63. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1882.2014.00047.x

Padilla, A. M., & Perez, W. (2003). Acculturation, social identity, and social cognition: a new perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25(1), 35–55. doi:10.1177/0739986303251694

Poyrazli, S., Arbona, C., Nora, A., McPherson, R., & Pisecco, S. (2002). Relation between assertiveness, academic self-efficacy, and psychosocial adjustment among international graduate students. Journal of College Student Development, 43(5), 632–642.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton University Press.

Schwarzer, R. (1992). Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. Hemisphere.

Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized self-efficacy scale. In S. W. J. Weinman & M. Johnston (Ed.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35–37). NFER-NELSON.

Searle, W., & Ward, C. (1990). The prediction of psychological and sociocultural adjustment during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 14(4), 449–464. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(90)90030-Z

Smith, R. A., & Khawaja, N. G. (2011). A review of the acculturation experiences of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 699–713. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.08.004

Sternberg, R. J., & Vroom, V. (2002). The person versus the situation in leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(3), 301–323. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(02)00101-7

Tchoh, B. K., & Mertan, E. B. (2018). Understanding the relationship between self-construals, self-esteem, social support, and the sociocultural adaptation of African students in Northern Cyprus. Journal of International Students, 8(2), 795–820. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1250381

Telbis, N. M., Helgeson, L., & Kingsbury, C. (2014). International students’ confidence and academic success. Journal of International Students, 4(4), 330–341.

Wang, K., T., Wei, M., Zhao, Chuang, C.-C., & Li, F. (2014). The cross-cultural loss scale: Development and psychometric evaluation. Psychological Assessment, 27(1), 42–53. doi:10.1037/pas0000027

Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2005). The psychology of culture shock. Routledge.

Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1994). Acculturation strategies, psychological adjustment, and sociocultural competence during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 18(3), 329–343. doi:10.1016/0147-1767(94)90036-1

Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1999). The measurement of sociocultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23(4), 659–677. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00014-0

Ward, C., & Rana-Deuba, A. (1999). Acculturation and adaptation revisited. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30(4), 422–442. doi:10.1177/0022022199030004003

Wen, W., Hu, D., & Hao, J. (2018). International students’ experiences in China: Does the planned reverse mobility work? International Journal of Educational Development, 61, 204–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2017.03.004

Wilson, J. K. (2013). Exploring the past, present, and future of cultural competency research: The revision and expansion of the sociocultural adaptation construct [Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington]. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/41338074.pdf

Yang, R. P. J., Noels, K. A., & Saumure, K. D. (2006). Multiple routes to cross-cultural adaptation for international students: Mapping the paths between self-construals, English language confidence, and adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(4), 487–506. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.11.010

Yu, B., & Wright, E. (2016). Socio-cultural adaptation, academic adaptation and satisfaction of international higher degree research students in Australia. Tertiary Education and Management, 22(1), 49¬64. doi:10.1080/13583883.2015.1127405

Yusoff, Y. M. (2011). International students’ adjustment in higher education: relation between social support, self-efficacy, and socio-cultural adjustment. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 1(1), 1–15.

Zhang, J., & Goodson, P. (2011). Acculturation and psychosocial adjustment of Chinese international students: Examining mediation and moderation effects. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(5), 614–627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2010.11.004

Published
2020-05-15
How to Cite
Gebregergis, W. T., Mehari, D. T., Gebretinsae, D. Y., & Tesfamariam, A. H. (2020). The Predicting Effects of Self-Efficacy, Self-Esteem and Prior Travel Experience on Sociocultural Adaptation Among International Students . Journal of International Students, 10(2), 339-357. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v10i2.616
Section
Research Articles