Examining the Relationship between Motivations and Resilience in Different International Student Groups Attending US Universities
Keywords:Extrinsic Motivation, higher education, international students, intrinsic motivation, resilience
Advancing diversity and inclusion in the U.S. higher education requires a solid understanding of the dynamics of students’ mobility. This study investigated the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations that lead different international student groups to study in American universities, in connection with their resilience in overcoming the inevitable higher education challenges. An online survey was completed by 164 international students at three research universities. Pearson correlation coefficient analyses and independent t tests were conducted to examine the relationships among three variables—intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and resilience—along with the differences among groups. Results show a medium-sized positive significant relationship between international students’ intrinsic motivations and resilience, and significant differences among groups of students in relation to intrinsic and extrinsic motivations.
Amirali, S., & Bakken, J. P. (2015). Trends and challenges of recruiting and retaining international graduate students: An internal perspective. Journal of Education Research, 9(4), 425–433.
Arnove, R., Torres, C. A., & Franz, F. (2013). Comparative education: The dialectic of the global and the local (4th ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Aron, A., Coups, E. J., & Aron, E. N. (2011). Statistics for the behavioral and social sciences (5th ed.). Pearson Education.
Banks, J. A. (2013). The construction and historical development of multicultural education, 1962–2012. Theory into Practice, 52(1), 73–82.
Biggs, J. (1987). Student approaches to learning and studying. Australian Council for Educational Research.
Bowman, N., & Park, J. (2014). Interracial contact on college campuses: Comparing and contrasting predictors of cross-racial interaction and interracial friendship. The Journal of Higher Education, 85(5), 660–690.
Chang, M. J. (1999). Does racial diversity matter? The educational impact of a racially diverse undergraduate population. Journal of College Student Development, 40(4), 377–393.
Chang, M. J., Denson, N., Sáenz, V., & Misa, K. (2006). The educational benefits of sustaining cross-racial interaction among undergraduates. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(3), 430–455.
Chao, C., Hegarty, N., Angelidis, J., & Lu, V. F. (2017). Chinese students' motivations for studying in the United States. Journal of International Students, 7(2), 257–269.
Chirkov, V., Safdar, S., De Guzman, J., & Playford, K. (2008). Further examining the role motivation to study abroad plays in the adaptation of international students in Canada. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(1), 427–440.
Chow, B. (2019). Multiculturalism. Salem Press Encyclopedia.
Cotton, D., Nash, T., & Kneale, P. (2017). Supporting the retention of non-traditional students in higher education using a resilience framework. European Educational Research Journal, 16(1), 62–79.
Edwards, T., Catling, J., & Parry, E. (2016). Identifying predictors of resilience in students. Psychology Teaching Review, 22(1), 26–34.
Franklin, R. S. (2013). The roles of population, place, and institution in student diversity in American higher education. Growth & Change, 44(1), 30–53.
Gonçalves, A. M., Cabral, L. R., Ferreira, M. C., Martins, M. C., & Duarte, J. C. (2017). Negative life events and resilience in higher education students. The European Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 19(2), 2381–2392.
Guo, S., & Jamal, Z. (2007). Nurturing cultural diversity in higher education: A critical review of selected models. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 37(3), 27–49.
Hazen, H. D., & Alberts, H. C. (2006). Visitors or immigrants? International students in the United States. Population, Space, and Place, 12, 201–216.
Hwang, B. J., Bennett, R., & Beauchemin, J. (2014). International students’ utilization of counseling services. College Student Journal, 48(3), 347–354.
Institute of International Education. (2018). International student enrollments by institutional type, 2016/17–2017/18 [Data set]. Open Doors Report. https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Open-Doors/Fact-Sheets-and-Infographics/Infographics/International-Student-Data
Johnson, M., & Banks, R. (2017). Diversity matters in international education. International Educator, 26(1), 54–55.
Karaman, M. A., & Watson, J. C. (2017). Examining associations among achievement motivation, locus of control, academic stress, and life satisfaction: A comparison of US and international undergraduate students. Personality and Individual Differences, 111(1), 106–110.
Khawaja, N., Moisuc, O., & Ramirez, E. (2014). Developing an acculturation and resilience scale for use with culturally and linguistically diverse populations. The Australian Psychological Society, 49, 171–180.
Lesjak, M., Juvan, E., Ineson, E., Yap, M., & Axelsson, E. (2015). Erasmus student motivation: Why and where to go? Higher Education, 70(5), 845–865.
Link, S. (2019). Self-determination theory. Salem Press.
Lu, T. Y., & Adler, H. (2011) Perspectives of international undergraduate students in hospitality and tourism management programs in the United States: Implications for educators and administrators. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 23(3), 16–25.
Martin, A. (2002). Motivation and academic resilience: Developing a model for student enhancement. Australian Journal of Education, 46(1), 34–49.
Martinez, P. (2001). College improvement: The voice of teachers and managers. Learning and Skills Development Agency. http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/id/eprint/9955
Miller, R. S. (2012). Understanding the motivation of Vietnamese international students and their higher education experiences in the United States (Publication no. 3533594) [Doctoral dissertation, University of North Texas]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
Neill, J. (n.d.). The university student motivation and satisfaction questionnaire version 2. Retrieved from wilderdom.com/courses/surveyresearch/assessment/labreport/TUSMSQ2.doc
Ortiz, A., & Choudaha, R. (2014). Attracting and retaining international students in Canada. World Education News + Reports. http://wenr.wes.org/2014/05/attracting-and-retaining-international-students-in-canada
Pidgeon, A. M., Rowe, N. F., Stapleton, P., Magyar, H. B., & Lo, B. C. (2014). Examining characteristics of resilience among university students: An international study. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 14–22.
Rubin, K. (2014). Retaining international students. International Educator, 23(5), 30–37.
Rush, K. (2013). A quantitative evaluation of gender, nationality, and generational/age influence on academic motivation (Publication No. ED555995) [Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global..
Saxena, S. (2014). International graduate women students in America: Motivations and expectations. Women in Higher Education, 23(12), 18–19.
Siczek, M. (2015). Developing global competency in US higher education: Contributions of international students. The CATESOL Journal, 27(2), 5–21.
Stanley, S., & Bhuvaneswari, M. G. (2016). Stress, anxiety, resilience and coping in social work students (a study from India). Social Work Education, 35(1), 78–88.
Urban, E., & Palmer, L. (2016). International students’ perceptions of the value of US higher education. Journal of International Students, 6(1), 153–174.
Valentine, K., Prentice, M., Torres, M. F., & Arellano, E. (2012). The importance of student cross-racial interactions as part of college education: Perceptions of faculty. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 5(4), 191–206.
Wagnild, G., & Collins, J. (2009). Assessing resilience. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 47(12), 28–33.
Wang, J. (2003). A study of the adjustment of international graduate students at American universities, including both resilience characteristics and traditional background factors (Publication No. 305326526) [Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
Williams, D. A. (2013). Strategic diversity leadership: Activating change and transformation in higher education. Stylus Publishing.
Woolfolk, A. (2019). Educational psychology (14th ed.). Pearson Education.
Yan, L., & Pei, S. (2018). Home away from home. How international students handle difficult and negative experiences in American higher education. Journal of International Students, 8(1), 453–472.
Yang, Y., Zhang, Y., & Sheldon, K. M. (2017). Self-determined motivation for studying abroad predicts lower culture shock and greater well-being among international students: The mediating role of basic psychological needs satisfaction. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 63(1), 95–104.
Zhou, J. (2015). International students’ motivation to pursue and complete a Ph.D. in the US. Higher Education, 69(5), 719–733.
How to Cite
All published articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Unported License.