Biopsychosocial Factors Associated with Depression among U.S. Undergraduate International Students
Keywords:biopsychosocial model, depression, international students, United States
Using a biopsychosocial framework, our study examined the biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors associated with depression among a cross-sectional sample of undergraduate international students (N = 712) attending 28 U.S. colleges and universities. Consistent with hypotheses, regression analysis revealed that self-esteem, life satisfaction, and coping self-efficacy were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, and that ethnic minority status, perceived discrimination, and financial concerns were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Contrary to predictions, age, optimism, friendships, and school belonging were not significant predictors, and perseverance predicted increased depression in this sample. The novel findings provide implications for researchers, university administrators, and counselors.
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