Coding Whiteness and Racialization: Living in the Space as an Insider-Outsider
Keywords:Whiteness, Racialization, Intersectionality, Politic of Location, Autoethnography, Muslim Identity, Islam
This study analyzes whiteness from the perspectives of “politic of location” to understand how it has changed and applied across the globe, rather than ignoring the relevancy of white supremacy for some geographies that have a racially homogenous population. The first part of the article interrogates my personal experiences of whiteness in Turkey which has a racially homogenous population. In Turkey, my experiences with whiteness were not as a result of directly having white bodies, but rather by being a part of the dominant culture, nation, religion, and language. The second part of this study discusses my experiences of whiteness in the United States. I highlight the different ways in which I experienced whiteness that had to do with my position as a Muslim Turkish woman in racially diverse America. In this autoethnography, by showing my relations and experiences within the discourse of whiteness and racialization of Muslims, I show how whiteness has significantly different meanings in different locations, and how whiteness’s ideology affects people’s experiences through local and global power relations.
Adams, T. E., Ellis, C., & Jones, S. H. (2017). Autoethnography. The international encyclopedia of communication research methods, 1-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118901731.iecrm0011
Alcoff, L. M. (2015). The future of whiteness. New Jersey, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Anthias, F. (2002). Where do I belong? Narrating collective identity and translocational Positionality. Ethnicitie, 2(4), 491-514. https://doi.org/10.1177/14687968020020040301 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/14687968020020040301
Arat-Koç, S. (2018). Culturalizing politics, hyper-politicizing ‘culture’: ‘White’ vs.‘Black Turks’ and the making of authoritarian populism in Turkey. Dialectical Anthropology, 42(4), 391- 408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10624-018-9500-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10624-018-9500-2
Aziz, Sahar F. (2012). From the oppressed to the terrorist: Muslim American women caught in the crosshairs of intersectionality. Hastings Race & Poverty Law Journal, 9(1), 262-283.
Balci, T. (2021). Kemalism and Populism. Sociology of Islam, 9(2), 152-188. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/22131418-00902004
Barakat, M. (2016). An autoethnography: Building bridges. In K. Scott & A. Henward (Eds), Women Education Scholars and Their Children’s Schooling (pp.1-21). Routledge: Taylor and Francis Group.
Bora, T. (2003). Nationalist discourses in Turkey. The South Atlantic Quarterly, 102, (2), 433-51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/00382876-102-2-3-433
Bora, T. (2006). Medeniyet Kaybı: Milliyetcilik ve Fasizm Uzerine Yazılar. Istanbul: Birikim
Brodkin, K. (1998). How Jews became white folks and what that says about race in America. New Jersey, NY: Rutgers University Press.
Cainkar, L. A. (2009). Homeland Insecurity: The Arab American and Muslim American Experience After 9/11. New York City, NY: Russell Sage Foundation Publications.
Cainkar, L., & Selod, S. (2018). Review of race scholarship and the war on terror. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 4(2), 165-177. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332649218762808 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2332649218762808
Christian, M. (2019). A global critical race and racism framework: Racial entanglements and deep and malleable whiteness. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity 5(2): 169-185. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332649218783220 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2332649218783220
Elias, A., Ben, J., Mansouri, F., & Paradies, Y. (2021). Racism and nationalism during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 44(5), 783-793. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2020.1851382
Ellis, C., Adams, T. E., & Bochner, A. P. (2011). Autoethnography: An Overview. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 12(1), 10-21.
Ellis, C., & Bochner, A. P. (Eds.). (1996). Composing ethnography: Alternative forms of qualitative writing. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press.
Ergin, M. (2008). ‘Is the Turk a white man?’ Towards a theoretical framework for race in the making of Turkishness. Middle Eastern Studies, 44(6), 827-850. https://doi.org/10.1080/00263200802425973 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00263200802425973
Ergin, M. (2014). The racialization of Kurdish identity in Turkey. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37(2), 322-341. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2012.729672 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2012.729672
Firang, D. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on international students in Canada. International Social Work, 63(6), 820-824. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0020872820940030
Frankenburg, R. (1993). White women, race matters: The social construction of whiteness. London: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203973431
Güner, E. (2021). Rethinking Whiteness in Turkey Through the AKP’s Foreign Policy in Africa South of the Sahara - MERIP. Middle East Report.
Gökarıksel, B., & Secor, A. (2010). Islamic‐ness in the life of a commodity: veiling‐fashion in Turkey. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 35(3), 313-333. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2010.00384.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2010.00384.x
Gökay, B., & Aybak, T. (2016). Identity, Race, and Nationalism in Turkey-Introduction to the Special Issue. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 18(2), 107-110. https://doi.org/10.1080/19448953.2016.1141575 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19448953.2016.1141575
Harro B. (2010). The cycle of liberation,in Adams, M., Blumenfeld, W.J., Castaneda, C.,
Hackman, H.W., Peters, M.L. and Zuniga, X. (Eds), Readings for Diversity and Social-Justice, 2nd ed., Routledge, New York, pp. 52-58.
Hesse, B. (2007). Racialized modernity: An analytics of white mythologies. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(4), 643-663. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870701356064 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870701356064
Husain, A. (2017). Retrieving the religion in racialization: A critical review. Sociology Compass, 11(9), e12507. https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12507 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12507
Husain, A. (2019). Moving beyond (and back to) the black-white binary: a study of black and white Muslims’ racial positioning in the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 42(4), 589-606. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2017.1410199 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2017.1410199
Husain, A. (2021). Deracialization, dissent, and terrorism in the FBI’s most wanted program. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 7(2), 208-225. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332649220921898 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2332649220921898
Ignatiev, N. (2012). How the Irish became white. London: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203473009
Irmak, S. (1937). Türklerin kan grupları ve kan gruplarının antropolojik karakterlerle ilgisi. II. Türk Tarih Kongresi, Ankara, Türkiye, 845-876. İçişleri Bakanlığı Göç İdaresi Başkanlığı. (2016).
İnan, A. (1947). Türkiye halkının karakterleri ve Türkiye tarihi, Türk ırkının vatanı Anadolu. Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara.
Jacobson, M. F. (1999). Whiteness of a different color. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvjk2w15
Kansu, Ş. A. (1991). İnsanlığın Kaynakları ve İlk Medeniyetler. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları.
Karaman, N., & Christian, M. (2020). “My Hijab Is Like My Skin Color”: Muslim Women Students, Racialization, and Intersectionality. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 6(4), 517-532. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332649220903740 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2332649220903740
Karaman, N. (2020). International Students’ Experiences During COVID-19 Pandemic. Social Science Studies Journal, 6(75), 5626-5632. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26449/sssj.2812
Karaman, N., & Christian, M. (2021). “Should I Wear a Headscarf to be a Good Muslim Woman?”: Situated Meanings of the Hijab Among Muslim College Women in America. Sociological Inquiry. https://doi.org/10.1111/soin.12454 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/soin.12454
Karaman, N. (2021). The Status of Women in Turkey: The Intersection of Gender, Politics, and Religion. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 193-207.
Khabeer, S. A. (2016). Muslim Cool: Race, Religion, and Hip Hop in the United States. New York, NY: New York University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt1bj4sbr
Koca, B. T. (2016). Syrian Refugees in Turkey: From “Guests” to “Enemies”? New Perspectives on Turkey, 54(1): 55–75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/npt.2016.4
Koh, S. Y., & Sin, I. L. (2021). Race, whiteness, and internationality in transnational education: academic and teacher expatriates in Malaysia. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 1-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2021.1977362
Kurt, G., Ilkkursun, Z., Javanbakht, A., Uygun, E., Karaoglan-Kahilogullari, A., & Acarturk, C. (2021). The psychological impacts of COVID-19 related stressors on Syrian refugees in Turkey: The role of resource loss, discrimination, and social support. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 85, 130-140. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2021.09.009
Lederer, A. M., Hoban, M. T., Lipson, S. K., Zhou, S., & Eisenberg, D. (2021). More than inconvenienced: the unique needs of US college students during the CoViD-19 pandemic. Health Education & Behavior, 48(1), 14-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198120969372
López, A. J. (2005). The gaze of the white wolf: Psychoanalysis, whiteness, and colonial Trauma. Postcolonial Whiteness: A Critical Reader on Race and Empire, 10(1), 155-181.
Lutz, H., & Amelina, A. (2021). Intersectionality and Transnationality as Key Tools for Gender-Sensitive Migration Research. In The Palgrave Handbook of Gender and Migration (pp. 55-72). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-63347-9_4
McClintock, A. (2013). Imperial leather: Race, gender, and sexuality in the colonial contest. London: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203699546
McLaren, P. (2003). Life in schools: An introduction to critical pedagogy in the foundation of education. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Moosavi, L. (2015). The racialization of Muslim converts in Britain and their experiences of Islamophobia. Critical Sociology, 41(1), 41-56. https://doi.org/10.1177/0896920513504601 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0896920513504601
Morris, A., Hastings, C., Wilson, S., Mitchell, E., & Ramia, G. (2020). The experience of international students before and during COVID-19: Housing, work, study, and wellbeing.
Münüsoğlu, H. (2010). Türkiye’de antropolojinin kurulma ve kurumsallaşma sorunlarına tarihsel bir yaklaşım: DTFC örneği. Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi), Ankara Üniversitesi, Türk İnkilâp Tarihi Enstitüsü.
Ozduzen, O., Korkut, U., & Ozduzen, C. (2021). ‘Refugees are not welcome’: Digital racism, online place-making and the evolving categorization of Syrians in Turkey. New Media & Society, 23(11), 3349-3369. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444820956341
Selod, S., & Embrick, D. G. (2013). Racialization and Muslims: Situating the Muslim experience in race scholarship. Sociology Compass, 7(8), 644-655. https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12057 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12057
Selod, S. (2018). Forever Suspect: Racialized Surveillance of Muslim Americans in the War on Terror. Rutgers University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36019/9780813588377
Shome, R. (1999). Whiteness and the politics of location: Postcolonial reflections. Whiteness: The communication of social identity, 107-128.
Supriya, K. E. (1999). White difference: Cultural constructions of white identity. Whiteness: The communication of social identity, 129-148.
Şimşek, D. (2021). “Winners and losers of neoliberalism”: the intersection of class and race in the case of Syrian refugees in Turkey. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 44(15), 2816-2835. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2020.1854812
Tatari, E. (2006). Populism and secularism in Turkey: the headscarf ban policy. American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 23(2), 20-37. DOI: https://doi.org/10.35632/ajiss.v23i2.438
Tok, G. C. (2009). The securitization of the headscarf issue in Turkey:‘the good and bad daughters’ of the republic. Ritsumeikan Annual Review of International Studies, 8(1), 113-137.
Toker, Huriye. 2019. “Too Similar to Be Different? “Syrian Refugee” Coverage in the Turkish and Norwegian Popular Media.” Kome-An International Journal of Pure Communication Inquiry, 7 (1): 63–83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17646/KOME.75698.45
Williamson, J. (1984). The crucible of race: Black-white relations in the American South since emancipation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Yorukoglu, I. (2017). Whiteness as an act of belonging: White Turks phenomenon in the post 9/11 world. Glocalism: Journal of Culture, Politics and Innovation, 2, 1-22.
Zevallos, Z. (2008). ‘You have to be Anglo and not look like me’: Identity and belonging among young women of Turkish and Latin American backgrounds in Melbourne, Australia. Australian Geographer, 39(1), 21-43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00049180701877410
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of International Students
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
All published articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Unported License.