Seeking a Sense of Belonging
Social and Cultural Integration of International Students with American College Students
Keywords:belonging, social integration, cultural integration, international students, college students
International students studying at higher education institutions in the United States experience challenges as they adjust to new environments. Social connectedness to American college students could mitigate such challenges and assist international students with social and cultural integration. This study, using qualitative data from interviews, examined international students’ experiences and their sense of belonging on an American college campus, including the factors that contribute to or deter from it.
Abe, J., Talbot, D. M., & Geelhoed, R. J. (1998). Effects of a peer program on international student adjustment. Journal of College Student Development, 39(6), 539-547.
Altbach, P.G., & Basset, R.M. (2004). The brain trade. Foreign Policy, 144, 30-32.
Araujo, A. D. (2011). Adjustment issues of international students enrolled in American colleges and universities: A review of the literature. Higher Education Studies, 1(1), 2-8.https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v1n1p2
Bentley, J. M. (2008). Supporting international student adjustment. Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI. Retrieved from https://www.cmich.edu/office_provost/AcademicAffairs/FYE/ Documents/Supporting%20International%20Student%20Adjustment.pdf
Chaney, L. H., & Martin, J. S. (2005). Intercultural communication: Bridging cultural difference. In J. C. Scott, C. Blaszcynski, & D. J. Green (Eds.), Communication for a global society: National business education association yearbook, No. 43 (pp. 100-114). Reston, VA: National Business Education Association.
Constantine, M., Anderson, G., Berkel, L., Caldwell, L., & Utsey, S. (2005). Examining the cultural adjustment of African international college students: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 57-66. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-022.214.171.124
Creswell, J.W. (1998) Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oak, CA: Sage Publications.
Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Creswell, J.W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Darwish, R. H. (2015). Sense of belonging among international students enrolled in graduate-level business programs: A case study. Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd. send_file?accession=bgsu1434980534&disposition=inline
Duru, E., & Poyrazli, S. (2007). Personality dimensions, psychosocial–demographic variables, and English language competency in predicting level of acculturative stress among Turkish international students. International Journal of Stress Management, 14(1), 99–110.https://doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.14.1.99
Eimers, M. T., & Pike, G. R. (1997). Minority and nonminority adjustment to college: Differences or similarities? Research in Higher Education, 38, 77-97. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024900812863
Glass, C. R., Wongtrirat, R., & Buus, S. (2015). International student engagement: strategies for creating inclusive, connected, and purposeful campus environments. Sterling, VA: Stylus.
Glesne, C. (2006). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
Greenfield, P. M., Trumbull, E., Keller, H., Rothstein-Fisch, C., Suzuki, L. K., & Quiroz, B. (2006). Cultural conceptions of learning development. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed) (pp. 675-692). Manwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Herman, N. J., & Reynolds, L. T. (1994). Symbolic interaction: An introduction to social psychology. New York, NY: General Hall.
Hurtado, S., Milem, J., Clayton-Pedersen. A., & Allen, W. (1999). Enacting diverse learning environments: Improving the climate for racial/ethnic diversity
in higher education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report Volume 26, No. 8.
Washington, DC: The George Washington University, Graduate School of Education and
Institute for International Education (2016). Enrollment trends: International students in the U.S. 1953/54-2015/16. Retrieved from https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Open-Doors/Data/International-Students/Enrollment-Trends
Institute of International Education (IIE). (2016). Open doors: 2016 fast facts. Retrieved from https://www.iie.org/-/media/Files/Corporate/Open-Doors/Fast-Facts/Fast-Facts-2016.ashx?la=en&hash=9E918FD139768E1631E06A3C280D8A9F2F22BBE1
Institute of International Education (IIE). (2016). Open Doors 2016 Executive Summary. Retrieved from https://www.iie.org/en/Why-IIE/Announcements/2016-11-14-Open-Doors-Executive-Summary
Johnson, L. R., & Sandhu, D. S. (2007). Isolation, adjustment, and acculturation issues of international students: Interventions strategies for counselors. In H. D. Singaravelu & M. Pope (Eds.), A handbook for counseling international students in the United States (pp. 13-36). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Krapels, R. H., & Davis, B. D. (2005). Culture shock and reverse culture shock: Developing coping skills. In J. C. Scott, C. Blaszczynski, & D. J. Green (Eds.), Communication for a global society: National business education association yearbook, No. 43 (pp. 115-131). Reston, VA: National Business Education Association.
Lee, R. M., & Robbins, S. B. (1998). The relation between social connectedness and anxiety, self esteem, and social identity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45, 338–345.https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0126.96.36.1998
Li, A., & Gasser, M. B. (2005). Predicting Asian international students’ sociocultural adjustment: A test of two mediation models. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(5), 561-576.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.06.003
Lincoln, K. D. (2000). Social support, negative social interactions, and psychological well-being. Social Service Review, 74, 231–252. https://doi.org/10.1086/514478
Long, D. (2012). The foundations of student affairs: A guide to the profession. In L. J. Hinchliffe & M. A. Wong (Eds.), Environments for student growth and development: Librarians and student affairs in collaboration (pp. 1-39). Chicago, IL: Association of College & Research Libraries.
Markus, H.R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224
Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
Misra, R., Crist, M., & Burant, C. (2003). Relationships among life stress, social support, academic stressors, and reactions to stressors of international students in the United States. International Journal of Stress Management,10(2), 137-157.https://doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.10.2.137
Mori, S. C. (2000). Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78, 137-144.https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb02571.x
Nora, A., & Cabrera, A. F. (1996). The role of perceptions in prejudice and discrimination and the adjustment of minority students to college. Journal of Higher Education, 67, 119-148.https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.1996.11780253
Quaye, S. J. (2012). White educators facilitating discussions about racial realities. Equity & Excellence in Education, 45(1), 100–119.https://doi.org/10.1080/10665684.2012.643684
Searle, W., & Ward, C. (1990). The prediction of psychological and sociocultural adjustment during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 14, 449-464.https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(90)90030-Z
Schmidt, J. J. (2006). Social and cultural foundations of counseling and human services: Multiple influences on self-concept development. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Sherry, M., Thomas, P., & Chui, W. H. (2010). International students: A vulnerable student population. Higher Education,60(1), 33-46.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-009-9284-z
Sinha, D. (1988). The family scenario in a developing country and its implications for mental health: The case of India. In Dasen, P.R., Berry, J.W. & Sartorius, N. (Eds.). Health and cross-cultural psychology: Toward applications (pp. 48–70). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Sullivan, C., & Kashubeck-West, S. (2015). The interplay of international students' acculturative stress, social support, and acculturation modes. Journal of International Students, 5(1), 1-11.
Surdam, J., & Collins, J. (1984). Adaptation of international students: A cause for concern. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 240-245.
Tafarodi, R. W. & Smith, A. J. (2001). Individualism-collectivism and depressive sensitivity to life events: The case of Malaysian sojourners. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25, 73-88.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(00)00043-2
Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Triandis, C.H., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M.J., Asai, M., & Lucca, N. (1988). Individualism and collectivism: Cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(2), 323–338.https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.523
Trice, A. G. (2004). Mixing It Up: International Graduate Students' Social Interactions with American Students. Journal of College Student Development,45(6), 671-687. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2004.0074
van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. London, ON, Canada: Althouse Press.
Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1992). Locus of control, mood disturbance, and social difficulty during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16, 175-194.https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(92)90017-O
Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1993a). Psychological and socio-cultural adjustment during cross-cultural transitions: A comparison of secondary students overseas and at home. International Journal of Psychology, 28(2), 129-147.https://doi.org/10.1080/00207599308247181
Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1993b). Where’s the culture in cross-cultural transition? Comparative studies of sojourner adjustment. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 24, 221-249.https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022193242006
Ward, C., & Rana-Deuba, A. (1999). Acculturation and adaptation revisited. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30, 422-442. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022199030004003
Ward, C., & Searle, W. (1991). The impact of value discrepancies and cultural identity on
psychological and sociocultural adjustment of sojourners. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15, 209-225.https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(91)90030-K
Wilton, L., & Constantine, M. G. (2003). Length of residence, cultural adjustment difficulties, and psychological distress in Asian and Latin-American international college students. Journal of College Counseling, 6, 177-186.https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1882.2003.tb00238.x
Yang, B., Teraoka, M., Eichenfield, G. A., & Audas, M. C. (1994). Meaningful relationships between Asian international and U.S. college students: A descriptive study. The College Student Journal, 28, 108-115.
Ye, J. (2006) Traditional and online support networks in the cross-cultural adaptation of Chinese international students in the United States. Journal of Computer-mediated Communication, 11(3), 863–876.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00039.x
Yeh, C. J., & Inose, M. (2003). International students’ reported English fluency, social support satisfaction, and social connectedness as predictors of acculturative stress. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 16(1), 15–28.https://doi.org/10.1080/0951507031000114058
Zúñiga, X., Nagda, B. A., & Sevig, T. D. (2002). Intergroup dialogues: An educational model for cultivating engagement across differences. Equity and Excellence in Education, 35(1), 7-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/713845248
How to Cite
All published articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Unported License.