International, Inaccessible, and Incomplete

A Texas Case Study of International Student Websites




access, admissions, application, internet, institutional websites


As the number of international students attending U.S. higher education institutions has declined 2 consecutive years (Saul, 2018), several institutions are exploring ways to increase international student interest. In Texas, the sociopolitical climate has become increasingly anti-immigrant (Watkins, 2017), leading many international students to question whether study in the US is feasible and safe. As institutional websites have been found to be important sources of international student information (Huang & Bilal, 2017; Taylor & Bicak, 2018), this study examines international student information on all public, 4-year institution websites in Texas. Findings suggest international student materials are difficult to read, are rarely translated, and lack basic information such as cost and housing information. Implications for future research and practice are addressed.

Author Biographies

Z.W. Taylor, The University of Texas at Austin, USA

Z.W. TAYLOR, MA, MS, is a PhD candidate in Higher Education Leadership at The University of Texas at Austin. His research focuses on linguistics, disability, and technology in higher education

Ibrahim Bicak, The University of Texas at Austin, USA

IBRAHIM BICAK, MA, MEd, is a PhD student in Higher Education Leadership at The University of Texas at Austin. His research interests focus on college access and success for underrepresented students, focusing on those who are first-generation college students from low-income families.


Glum, J. (2017). Donald Trump may be scaring international students away from colleges in the U.S. Retrieved from

Huang, L.-M., & Bilal, D. (2017). “Not what I thought!”: Information seeking behaviors of international students during the application for graduate study in the USA. Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 54(1), 709-711.

Marcus, J. (2017). The decline of the midwest's public universities threatens to wreck its most vibrant economies. Retrieved from

Redden, E. (2018). New international enrollments decline again. Retrieved from

Saul, S. (2018). As flow of foreign students wanes, U.S. universities feel the sting. Retrieved from

Taylor, Z. W. (2018). Intelligibility is equity: Can international students read undergraduate admissions materials? Higher Education Quarterly, 72(2), 160-169.

Taylor, Z. W., & Bicak, I. (2018). Institutional, informational, international: Predicting international student enrollment and rate by online information. Journal of Comparative and International Higher Education, 10, 61-65. Retrieved from

Watkins, M. (2017). Texas universities forced to trim their budgets, even with big state cuts averted. Retrieved from




How to Cite

Taylor, Z., & Bicak, I. (2019). International, Inaccessible, and Incomplete: A Texas Case Study of International Student Websites. Journal of International Students, 9(4), 1009–1014.



Research Articles (English)