An Inventory of International Student Services at 200 U.S. Universities and Colleges
Descriptive Data of Pre-Departure and Post-Arrival Supports
Keywords:integration, international students, pre-departure, post-arrival, support services
During the spring semester of 2018, a survey of international student support services was conducted on 200 randomly selected U.S. universities and colleges using the International Student Support Services Index. Survey results identified the most and least commonly provided international student support services in addition to common patterns of institutional practices around international student support across the US. The research results are complemented by researcher notes and observations in addition to school administrator quotes. This article concludes with recommendations and implications for practice. Colleges and universities wanting to recruit and retain culturally and academically prepared international students may benefit from learning how other institutions offer integration support services.
Altay, I. F. (2005). Developing Cultural Awareness. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies. 2, 171-182.
Altshuler, L., Sussman, N. M., Kachur, E. (2003). Assessing changes in intercultural sensitivity among physician trainees using the intercultural development inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27, 387-401.
Ammigan, R. & Jones, E. (2018). Improving the student experience: learning from the comparative study of international student satisfaction. Journal of Studies in International Education, 22(4) 283-301.
Benjamin, M., Earnest, K., Gruenewald, D., & Arthur, G. (2007). The first few weeks of the first year. New Directions for Student Services, (117) 13-24. doi: 10.1002/ss.229
Berry, J. W. (2006). Stress perspectives on acculturation. The Cambridge Handbook of Acculturation Psychology. Cambridge: University Press.
Cetinkaya-Yildiz, E., Cakir, S. G., & Kondakci, Y. (2011). Psychological distress among international students in Turkey. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 534-539.
Chen, C. P. (1999). Common stressors among international college students: Research and counseling implications. Journal of College Counseling, 2, 49-65.
Church, A. (1982). Sojourner adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 540-572.
Cho, J., & Yu J. (2015). Roles of University Support for International Students in the United States: Analysis of a Systematic Model of University Identification, University Support, and Psychological Well-Being. Journal of Studies in International Education, 19(1), 11-27.
Chow, P., Gutierrez, R., Baumgartner, J., & Sato, Y. (2009). The economic impact of international students from a cross-national perspective. NAFSA 2009 Annual Conference retrieved from http://www.softconference.com/nafsa/slist.asp?C=2863
Dee, J. R., & Henkin, A. B. (1999). Challenges to adjustment to college life in the United States: Experiences of Korean students. International Education, 29, 54-70.
Dekaney, E. M. (2008). Students’ pre-departure expectations and post-sojourn observations in a short-term international program abroad on the culture, music, and art of Brazil. International Education, 37(2), 17-29.
Freeman, K., & Li, M. (2019). “We are a ghost in class”: First year international students’ experiences int he Global Contact Zone. Journal of International Students, 9(1), 19–38.
Fritz, M. V., Chin, D., and DeMarinis, V. (2008). Stressors, anxiety, acculturation, and adjustment among international and North American students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(3), 244-259.
Gardner, S. K. (2007). I heard it through the grapevine: Doctoral student socialization in chemistry and history. Higher Education, 54, 723-740.
Glass, C. R., Gomex, E., & Urzua, A. (2014). Recreation, intercultural friendships, and international students’ adaptation to college by region of origin. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 42, 104-117.
Hechanova-Alampay, R., Beehr, T. A., Christiansen, N. D., & Van Horn, R. K. (2002). Adjustment and strain among domestic and international student sojourners: A longitudinal study. School Psychology International, 23, 458-474.
Hser, M. (2005). Campus internationalization: a study of American universities’ internationalization efforts. International Education, 35(1), 35-48.
Institute of International Education [IIE]. (2018). Opendoors 2014: Fast facts: United States. Institute of International Education. Retrieved from https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Open-Doors/Fact-Sheets-and-Infographics/Fast-Facts
Johnson, L. R., & Sandhu, D. S. (2007). Isolation, adjustment, and acculturation issues of international students: Intervention strategies for counselors. In H. D. Singaravelu & M. Pope (Eds.), A Handbook for Counseling International Students in the United States (pp. 13-35). Alexandra, VA: American Counseling Association.
Kegel, K. (2009). Homesickness in international college students. In G. R. Walz, J. C. Bleuer, & R. K. Yep (Eds.), Compelling counseling interventions: VISTAS 2009 (pp. 67-76). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Leong, F. T. L., & Chou, E. L. (1996). Counseling international students. In P. Pedersen (Ed.), Counseling across cultures (4th ed.) (pp. 210-242). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Leong, F. T. L., Mallinckrodt, B., & Kralj, M. M. (1990). Cross-cultural variations in stress and adjustment among Asian and Caucasian graduate students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 18(1), 19–28.
Lyman, D.J., & Rogers, K.A. (1994). Calculating the economic impact of foreign students. New York: Institute of International Education.
Madden-Dent, T. (2014). A phenomenological study of cultural transition and adjustment of Asian undergraduate international students using different cross-cultural treatments. ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing.
Madden-Dent, T., Roskina, K., & Wood, D. (2018). International Student Integration Solutions. Presentation at the annual NAFSA National Conference: Philadelphia, PA. Retrieved at https://www.academia.edu/36955032/International_Student_Integration_Solutions_Whos_Doing_What_Services_and_Why
Martirosyan, N. M., Bustamantea, R. M., & Saxon, D. P. (2019). Academic and Social Support Services for International Students: Current Practices. Journal of International Students, 9(1), 172–19.
Mori, S. C. (2000). Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78, 137-144.
Mukminin, A. & McMahon, B. (2013). International graduate students’ cross-cultural academic engagement: Stories of Indonesian doctoral students on American campus. The qualitative Report, 18(69), 1-19.
NAFSA. (2018). The economic benefits of international students to the U.S. economy for the 2017-2018 academic year: A statistical analysis. NAFSA: Association of International Educators annual Economic Impact Statement. Retrieved from http://www.nafsa.org/Publicpolicy.aspx?id=34242
Neill, J. (2008). The expatriate venture: What role does cross-cultural training play and what theories guide research in the field? Schmidt Labor Research Center Seminar Research Series: University of Rhode Island.
Pitts, M. J. (2009). Identity and the role of expectations, stress, and talk in short-term student sojourner adjustment: An application of the integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33, 450-462.
Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E., & McDaniel, E. R. (2011). Intercultural communication: A reader (13 ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Sanchez, J. I., Spector, P. E., & Cooper, C. L. (2000). Adapting to a boundaryless world: A developmental expatriate model. Academy of Management Executive, 14(2), 96-106.
Sandhu, D., & Asrabadi, B. (1994). Development of an acculturative stress scale for international students: Preliminary findings. Psychological Reports, 75, 435-448.
Selmer, J. (2001). Coping and adjustment of Western expatriate managers in Hong Kong. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 17, 167-185.
Sewell, W. H., & Davidson, O. M. (1956). The adjustment of Scandinavian students. Journal of Social Issues, 12, 9-19.
Shadowena, N. L., Williamsonb, A. A., Guerrac, N. G., Ammigan, R., & Drexlerd, M. L. (2019). Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms Among International Students: Implications for University Support Offices. Journal of International Students, 9(1), 129–148.
Shah, H. (1991). Communication and cross-cultural adaptation patterns among Asian Indians. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15, 311-321.
Shemshadsara, Z. G. (2012). Developing cultural awareness in foreign language teaching. English Language Teaching, 5(3), 95-99.
Shim, I., & Paprock, K. E. (2002). A study focusing on American expatriates’ learning in host countries. International Journal of Training and Development, 6(1), 13-24.
Smith, R. A., & Khawaja N. G. (2011). A review of the acculturation experiences of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 699-713.
Sullivan, C., Kashubeck-West, S. (2015). The interplay of international students’ acculturative stress, social support, and acculturation modes. Journal of International Students, 5(1), 1-11.
Swagler, M. A., & Ellis, M. V. (2003). Crossing the distance: Adjustment of Taiwanese graduate students in the United States. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 420-437.
Tochkov, K., Levine, L, & Sanaka, A. (2010). Variation in the prediction of cross-cultural adjustment by Asian-Indian students in the United States. College Student Journal, 44(3), 677-689.
Wang, Y. (2004). Pursuing cross-cultural graduate education: A multifaceted investigation. International Education, 52-75.
Ward, C., & Kennedy, C. (1994). Acculturation strategies, psychological adjustment, and sociocultural competence during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 18(3), 329-343.
Weng, F., Cheong, F., & Cheong, C. (2010). The combined effect of self-efficacy and academic integration on higher education students studying IT majors in Taiwan. Education and Information Technologies, 15, 333-353.
Yan, Z., & Sendall, P. (2016). First year experience: How we can better assist first-year International students in higher education. Journal of International Students, 6(1), 35–51.
Ying, Y., & Liese, L. H. (1990). Initial adaptation of Taiwan foreign students to the United States: The impact of prearrival variables. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18(6), 825-845.
Ying, Y., & Liese, L. H. (1991). Emotional well-being of Taiwan students in the U.S: An examination of pre-to post arrival differential. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15(3), 345–366.
Yoon, E., Lee, R. M., & Goh, M. (2008). Acculturation, social connectedness, and subjective wellbeing. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14(3), 246–255.
Zhou, Y., Frey, C., & Bang, H. (2011). Understanding of international graduate students’ academic adaptation to a U.S. graduate school. International Education, 41(1), 76-94.
Zhu, Y. (2008). From cultural adaptation to cross-cultural discursive competence. Discourse & Communication, 2(2), 185.
How to Cite
All published articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Unported License.