Race and Neoliberalism in the Labour Market Integration of International Student Graduates in Canada
Keywords:International student graduates (student migrants), labour market, racing neoliberalism, Canada
This paper illustrates the mutually constitutive processes of race and neoliberalism in the labour market navigation and integration for Black Caribbean and South/Southeast Asian international student graduates in Canada. The data was gathered from recent international students and key informants in Canada’s immigration policy circle using semi-structured interviews. The paper reveals that international student graduates are constrained to seek out precarious and low-skilled forms of employment and participate in a labour market that profits from cheap, exploitable flexible labour. Participants in areas outside the populous Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area are perceived as contingent workers. The paper concludes on the salience using a non-racial analysis of neoliberalism to interpret the postgraduation employment of international students.
Akkaymak, G. (2016). Social network development experiences of immigrants from Turkey to Canada. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 42(15), 2611-2628. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2016.1164589
Aguiar, L. & Marten, T. (2011). Shimmering White Kelowna and the examination of painless
white privilege in the hinterland of British Columbia. In A. Baldwin, L. Cameron & A. Kobayashi (Eds.), Rethinking the great white north: Race, nature, and the historical geographies of whiteness in Canada (127-146). UBC Press.
Baas, M. (2006). Cash cows: Milking Indian students in Australia. IIAS Newsletter, 42, Article 14.
Baas, M. (2014). Victims or profiteers? Issues of migration, racism and violence among Indian students in Melbourne. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 55(2), 212–225. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/apv.12046
Bakan, A., & Stasiulis, D. (2003). Negotiating citizenship: Migrant women in Canada and the global system. Palgrave MacMillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230286924
Bauder, H. (2006). Labor movement: How migration regulates labor markets. Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780195180879.001.0001
Bauder, H. (2005). Landscape and scale in media representations: The construction of offshore farm labour in Ontario, Canada. Cultural Geographies, 12(1), 41-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1191/1474474005eu322oa
Bolaria, S. & Li, P. (1988). Racial Oppression in Canada (2nd edition). Garamond Press.
Bonacich, E., Alimahomed, S., & Wilson, J. (2008). The racialization of global labor. American Behavioral Scientist, 52(3), 342–355. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764208323510
Bonilla-Silva, E. (2014). Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in America. Rowman & Littlefield.
Calliste A. (1993/4) Race, gender and Canadian immigration policy: Blacks from the Caribbean, 1900-1932. Journal of Canadian Studies, 28(4), 131-145. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3138/jcs.28.4.131
Choudry, A., & Smith, A. (Eds.). (2016). Unfree labour?: Struggles of migrant and immigrant workers in Canada. PM Press.
Davis, D. (2007). Narrating the mute: Racializing and racism in a neoliberal moment. Souls, 9(4), 346-360. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10999940701703810
Dawson, M. (2019) Chocolate cities: A brief note from a race and capitalism perspective. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 42(3), 425-430. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2019.1536278
Ellis, E. G. (2019). ‘Seamless’ Transition to Citizenship? International Student Graduates, Race, and Structural Inequities in Canada’s (Im)migration-labour Market (Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto (Canada)).
Etikan, I., Musa, S., & Alkassim, R. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics 5(1), 1-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11
Frenette, M., Lu, Y., & Chan, W. (2019). The Postsecondary Experience and Early Labour Market Outcomes of International Study Permit Holders. Statistics Canada.
Giroux, H. (2005). The terror of neoliberalism: rethinking the significance of cultural politics. College Literature, 32(1), 1-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/lit.2005.0006
Goldberg, D. (1993). Racist culture: Philosophy and the politics of meaning. Blackwell Publishers.
Government of Canada. (2021). “Canada’s Covid-19 Economic Response Plan.” Online. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan.html
Government of Canada. (2020). “Canada – international mobility program (IMP) work permit holders under post-graduate employment on December 31st by Province/Territory and Census Metropolitan Area of intended Destination, 2000-2019.” https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/90115b00-f9b8-49e8-afa3-b4cff8facaee.
Government of Canada. (2018). Immigrate through Express Entry. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/immigrate-canada/express-entry.html?_ga=2.97509279.1436221375.1530307921-1213687316.1530307921
Government of Canada. (2014). Harper government launches comprehensive international education strategy. https://www.canada.ca/en/news/archive/2014/01/harper-government-launches-comprehensive-international-education-strategy.html
Harvey, D. (2005). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199283262.003.0010
Harvey, D. (1989). The Limits to Capital. University of Chicago Press.
Herod, A. (2018). Labor. Polity Press.
Inwood, J. (2015). Neoliberal racism: the ‘Southern Strategy’ and the expanding geographies of white supremacy. Social & Cultural Geography, 16(4), 407-423. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14649365.2014.994670
Kim, A., & Kwak, M. (2019). Outward and upward mobilities: International students in Canada, their families, and structuring institutions. University of Toronto Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3138/9781487530563
Ku, J., Bhuyan, R., Sakamoto, I., et al. (2018). “Canadian experience” discourse and anti-racialism in a “post-racial” society. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 42:2, 291-310. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2018.1432872
Leach, C. (2005). Against the notion of a ‘new racism’. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 15(6), 432-445. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.841
Liu, J. (2019). The precarious nature of work in the context of Canadian immigration: an intersectional analysis. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 51(2):169-185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/ces.2019.0013
Lu, U. & Hou, F. (2019). Student Transitions: Earnings of Former International Students in Canada’s Labour Market. In A. Kim & M. Kwak (Eds.), Outward and Upward Mobilities (pp. 219-245). University of Toronto Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3138/9781487530563-014
Luttrell, W. (2010). Qualitative educational research: Readings in reflexive methodology and transformative practice. Routledge.
Marginson, S., Nyland, C., Sawir, E. & Forbes-Mewett, H. (2010) International Student Security. Cambridge University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511751011
Marshall, M. (1996). The key informant technique. Family Practice 13(1), 92-97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/13.1.92
Mascarenhas, M. (2016). Where the waters divide: Neoliberal racism, white privilege and environmental injustice. Race, Gender & Class, 23(3-4), 6-25.
Melamed, J. (2015). Racial Capitalism. Critical Ethnic Studies, 1(1): 76–85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5749/jcritethnstud.1.1.0076
Melamed, J. (2015). Represent and Destroy: Rationalizing Violence in the New Racial Capitalism. University of Minnesota Press.
Mensah, J. (2012). Black Canadians. History, experiences, social conditions. Halifax: Fernwood.
Mickleborough, T. (2020). A Foucauldian discourse analysis of the construction of Canadian international pharmacy graduates professional identities and subjectivities. PhD thesis, Leadership, Higher and Adult Education, University of Toronto.
Mullings, B. (1999). Sides of the same coin? Coping and resistance among Jamaican data‐entry operators. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 89(2):290-311. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8306.00146
Olssen, M., & Peters, M. (2005). Neoliberalism, higher education and the knowledge economy. Journal of Education Policy, 20(3):313-345. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02680930500108718
Omi, M., & Winant, H. (1994/1986). Racial formation in the United States. Routledge.
Peck, J., & Tickell, A. (2002). Neoliberalizing space. Antipode, 34(3), 380-404. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00247
Pulido, L. (2000). Rethinking environmental racism: White privilege and urban development in southern California. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90(1), 12-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/0004-5608.00182
Pulido, L. (2016). Flint, environmental racism, and racial capitalism. Capitalism Nature Socialism, 27(3), 1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10455752.2016.1213013
Roberts, D., & Mahtani, M. (2010). Neoliberalizing race, racing neoliberalism: Placing “race” in neoliberal discourses. Antipode, 42(2), 248-257. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2009.00747.x
Robertson, S. (2011). Cash cows, backdoor migrants, or activist citizens? International students, citizenship, and rights in Australia. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(12), 2192-2211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2011.558590
Robinson, C. (2000). Black Marxism: The making of the black radical tradition. University of North Carolina Press.
Scott, C., Safdari, S., Trilokekar, R., & Masri, A. (2015). International Students as ‘Ideal Immigrants’ in Canada: A disconnect between policy makers’ assumptions and the lived experiences of international students. Comparative and International Education, 43(3), 58-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5206/cie-eci.v43i3.9261
Sharma, N. (2012). The ‘difference’ that borders make: ‘Temporary foreign workers’ and the social organization of unfreedom in Canada. In P. Lenard & C. Straehle (Eds.), Legislated inequality: Temporary labour migration in Canada (26-47). McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Springer, S. (2010). Neoliberalism and geography: Expansions, variegations, formations. Geography Compass, 4(8), 1025-1038. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-8198.2010.00358.x
Standing, G. (2014). Understanding the precariat through labour and work. Development and Change, 45(5), 963-980. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/dech.12120
Theodore, N. (2007). Closed borders, open markets: Day laborers’ struggle for economic rights. In H. Leitner, J. Peck & E. Sheppard (Eds.), Contesting neoliberalism: Urban frontier (250-265). Guilford Press.
Thomas, E. (2020). ‘Forgetting’ to survive: Black Jamaican masculinities in Canada’s seasonal agricultural worker program. Gender, Place & Culture, 27(12), 1785-1805. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2020.1754168
Swarts, J. (2013) Constructing Neoliberalism. Economic Transformation in Anglo-American Democracies. University of Toronto Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3138/9781442665781
Williams, K., Williams, G., Arbuckle, A., Walton-Roberts, M., & Hennebry, J. (2015). International students in Ontario’s postsecondary education system, 2000-2012: An evaluation of changing policies, populations and labour market entry processes. HEQCO.
Wilson, D. (2006). Cities and race: America’s new Black ghettos. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203004104
Wright, M. (2006). Disposable women and other myths of global capitalism. Routledge.
Yang, P. (2020). Toward a framework for (re)thinking the ethics and politics of international student mobility. Journal of Studies in International Education 24(5):518-34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315319889891
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of International Students
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
All published articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Unported License.