Helping International Students Identify Themselves

Social Media Usage and Organizational Attachment


  • Gustavo Valdez Paez St. Cloud State University, USA
  • Ning Hou St. Cloud State University, USA
  • James A. Tan St. Cloud State University, USA
  • Zhan Wang St. Cloud State University, USA
  • Jing Hua Troy University, USA



big five personality, organizational attachment, social media usage


The relationship between social media usage and personality has received increased scrutiny recently. The current study studies international students’ organizational attachment through the exploration of their personality and usage of university social media. Participants were 51 international students from a Midwest State University and 49 domestic (U.S.) students for comparison purposes. Results showed some differences in the structure of personality, level of social media usage, and level of organizational attachment comparing international students and domestic students. Results also supported the complementary purpose of using social media for international students, where agreeableness and openness to experience are negatively associated with social media usage. Moreover, the relationship was stronger when students’ English proficiency is lower. An overall model demonstrated the relationship among international students’ personalities, university social media usage, and organizational attachment. 

Author Biographies

Gustavo Valdez Paez, St. Cloud State University, USA

GUSTAVO VALDEZ PAEZ  is an artist and researcher at St Cloud State University. His major research interests
are personality, self-expression and team building.

Ning Hou, St. Cloud State University, USA

NING HOU, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Management and Entrepreneurship at St. Cloud State University. Her major research interests include cross cultural issues in organizations, leadership, and individual differences

James A. Tan, St. Cloud State University, USA

JAMES A. TAN, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Management and Entrepreneurship at St. Cloud State University. His major research interests lie in the area of staffing, employee development, and individual differences

Zhan Wang, St. Cloud State University, USA

ZHAN (MYRA) WANG, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Marketing at St. Cloud State University. Her major research interests focus on social media and digital marketing, marketing strategy, sales management, and the in-depth exploration of cause-effect-relationships in different fields of international marketing.

Jing Hua, Troy University, USA

JING HUA, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Management and HR, Sorrell College of Business, Troy University. Her major research interests lie in the area of cross-cultural adjustment, positive psychology


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How to Cite

Valdez Paez, G., Hou, N., Tan, J., Wang, Z., & Hua, J. (2021). Helping International Students Identify Themselves: Social Media Usage and Organizational Attachment. Journal of International Students, 11(1), 156–175.



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