What Drives Student Recommendations?
An Empirical Investigation of the Learning Experiences of International Students in Australia, the UK, and the US
Keywords:international students, learning experience, marketing and recruitment, recommendation, satisfaction
Insights into how student learning experiences impact university recommendation can be critical for higher education institutions as they seek to optimize enrollment and retention efforts in an increasingly competitive and highly unpredictable global market. This comparative study examines the extent to which satisfaction with various aspects of the academic environment influences recommendation for over 23,000 international undergraduate students at universities in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Five key implications for the quality of teaching and learning, English language support, career development and readiness, access to information and communication technologies, and assessment and benchmarking are discussed. Results from a factor analysis reveal an underlying structure to the learning variables used in this research and provide empirical support for its application in future investigations of the academic experiences of international students in higher education.
Adams, T., Leventhal, M., & Connelly, S. (2012). International student recruitment in Australia and the United States: Approaches and attitudes. In D. K. Deardorff, H. d. Wit, J. D. Heyl, & T. Adams (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education (pp. 399–416). https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452218397.n22
Akanwa, E. E. (2015). International students in western developed countries: History, challenges, and prospects. Journal of International Students, 5(3), 271–284. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262029179.003.0006
Ammigan, R. (2019). Institutional satisfaction and recommendation: What really matters to international students? Journal of International Students, 9(1), 253–272. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v9i1.260
Ammigan, R., Dennis, J. L., & Jones, E. (2021). The differential impact of learning experiences on international student satisfaction and institutional recommendation. Journal of International Students, 11(2), 299–321. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v11i2.2038
Ammigan, R., & Jones, E. (2018). Improving the student experience: Learning from a comparative study of international student satisfaction. Journal of Studies in International Education, 22(4). https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315318773137
Andridge, R. R., & Little, R. J. A. (2010, April). A review of hot deck imputation for survey non-response. International Statistical Review, Vol. 78, pp. 40–64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-5823.2010.00103.x
Arambewela, R., & Hall, J. (2009). An empirical model of international student satisfaction. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 21(4), 555–569. https://doi.org/10.1108/13555850910997599
Arkoudis, S., Baik, C., Bexley, E., & Doughney, L. (2014). English language proficiency and employability framework. Retrieved from https://melbourne-cshe.unimelb.edu.au/research/research-projects/teaching/english-language-proficiency-and-employability-framework
Asare-Nuamah, P. (2017). International students’ satisfaction: Assessing the determinants of satisfaction. Higher Education for the Future, 4(1), 44–59. https://doi.org/10.1177/2347631116681213
Banjong, D. N., & Olson, M. R. (2016). Issues and trends of international students in the United States. International Journal of Education, 4(1), 1–14.
Baron, G., & Hartwig, K. (2020, May 15). Workplace experience of international students in Australia. Journal of International Students, Vol. 10, pp. viii–xi. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v10i2.1946
Beelen, J., & Jones, E. (2015). Redefining Internationalization at Home. In A. Curai, L. Matei, R. Pricopie, J. Salmi, & P. Scott (Eds.), The European Higher Education Area (pp. 59–72). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20877-0_5
Beneke, J., & Human, G. (2010). Student recruitment marketing in South Africa - An exploratory study into the adoption of a relationship orientation. African Journal of Business Management, 4(4).
Binsardi, A., & Ekwulugo, F. (2003). International marketing of British education: Research on the students’ perception and the UK market penetration. Marketing Intelligence & Planning. https://doi.org/10.1108/02634500310490265
Brammer, S., & Clark, T. (2020). COVID-19 and management education: Reflections on challenges, opportunities, and potential futures. British Journal of Management, 31(3), 453–456. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12425
Brett, K. J. (2013). Making the most of your International Student Barometer data : A guide to good practice. Retrieved from https://www.i-graduate.org/assets/2012-Making-the-Most-of-ISB-Data.pdf
Butt, B. Z., & Rehman, K. U. (2010). A study examining the students satisfaction in higher education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 5446–5450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.888
Chang, S., & Gomes, C. (2017). Digital journeys: A perspective on understanding the digital experiences of international students. Journal of International Students, 7(2). https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v7i2.385
Chen, L.-H. (2008). Internationalization or international marketing? Two frameworks for Understanding International Students’ Choice of Canadian universities. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 18(1), 1–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/08841240802100113
Choudaha, R. (2016). Campus readiness for supporting international student success. Journal of International Students, 6(4), I–V. Retrieved from https://jistudents.org/2016-volume-64/
Choudaha, R., & Kono, Y. (2012). Beyond more of the same: The top four emerging markets for international student recruitment. Retrieved from https://wenr.wes.org/2012/10/wenr-october-2012-beyond-more-of-the-same-top-four-emerging-markets-for-international-student-recruitment
Choudaha, R., & van Rest, E. (2018). Envisioning pathways to 2030: Megatrends shaping the future of global higher education and international student mobility. Retrieved from https://www.studyportals.com/2018-megatrends-higher-education-webinar/
Clement, A., Murugavel, T., & Murugavel, T. (2015). English for employability: A case study of the english language training need analysis for engineering students in India. English Language Teaching, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v8n2p116
Constantinides, E., & Holleschovsky, N. I. (2016). Impact of online product reviews on purchasing decisions. International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies, 1. https://doi.org/10.5220/0005861002710278
Cronin, J. J., Brady, M. K., & Hult, G. T. M. (2000). Assessing the effects of quality, value, and customer satisfaction on consumer behavioral intentions in service environments. Journal of Retailing, 76(2), 193–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4359(00)00028-2
de Wit, H. (2020). Internationalization of higher education: The need for a more ethical and qualitative approach. Journal of International Students, 10(1), i–iv. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v10i1.1893
Elliott, K. M., & Healy, M. A. (2001). Key factors influencing student satisfaction related to recruitment and retention. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 10(4), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1300/J050v10n04_01
Eze, S. C., & Inegbedion, H. (2015). Key factors influencing academic performance of international students in UK universities: A preliminary investigation. British Journal of Education, 3(5), 55–68.
Gopal, A. (2016). Visa and immigration trends: A comparative examination of international student mobility in Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Strategic Enrollment Management Quarterly, 4(3), 130–141. https://doi.org/10.1002/sem3.20091
i-graduate. (n.d.). International Student Barometer. Retrieved from https://www.i-graduate.org/services/international-student-barometer/
ICEF Monitor. (2020). Resetting international recruitment for extraordinary times. Retrieved December 19, 2020, from https://monitor.icef.com/2020/03/resetting-international-recruitment-for-extraordinary-times
Irina, S., Gregg, T., & Martha, M. (2017). Fostering global competence through internationalization at American research universities. Research & Occasional Paper Series. Retrieved from https://publications.hse.ru/en/preprints/211232094
Kahanec, M., & Králiková, R. (2011). Pulls of international student mobility. Retrieved from https://www.iza.org/publications/dp/6233/pulls-of-international-student-mobility
Lapina, I., Roga, R., & Müürsepp, P. (2016). Quality of higher education: International students’ satisfaction and learning experience. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 8(3). https://doi.org/10.1108/IJQSS-04-2016-0029
Leask, B. (2004). Internationalisation outcomes for all students using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(4). https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315303261778
Lee, J. J. (2010). International students’ experiences and attitudes at a US host institution: Self-reports and future recommendations. Journal of Research in International Education, 9(1), 66–84. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475240909356382
Lee, J. J., & Rice, C. (2007). Welcome to America? International student perceptions of discrimination. Higher Education, 53(3), 381–409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-005-4508-3
Li, H. (2019). Academic integration of Chinese students in Finland and Germany: A comparative perspective. Frontiers of Education in China, 14(2), 234–256. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11516-019-0012-x
Little, R. J. A. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83(404), 1198–1202. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1988.10478722
Lobo, A., Maritz, A., & Mehta, S. (2007). Enhancing Singapore travel agencies’ customer loyalty: an empirical investigation of customers’ behavioural intentions and zones of tolerance. International Journal of Tourism Research, 9(6), 485–495. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.619
Luo, J., & Jamieson-Drake, D. (2013). Examining the educational benefits of interacting with international students. Journal of International Students, 3(85–101).
Machado-da-Silva, F. N., Meirelles, F. de S., Filenga, D., & Filho, M. B. (2014). Student satisfaction process in virtual learning system: Considerations based in information and service quality from Brazil’s experience. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 15(3). https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.52605
María Cubillo, J., Sánchez, J., & Cerviño, J. (2006). International students’ decision‐making process. International Journal of Educational Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513540610646091
Marklein, M. B. (2020, May 30). International enrolment drop to cost universities US$4.5bn. Retrieved December 13, 2020, from University World News website: https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20200530072612612
Marmolejo, F. (2020, June 13). We need to reimagine higher education, not just repair it. Retrieved December 13, 2020, from University World News website: https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20200612100902318
Martirosyan, N. M., Hwang, E., & Wanjohi, R. (2015). Impact of English proficiency on academic performance of international students. Journal of International Students, 5(1), 60–71.
Mavondo, F. T., Tsarenko, Y., & Gabbott, M. (2004). International and local student satisfaction: Resources and capabilities perspective. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 14(1), 41–16. https://doi.org/10.1300/J050v14n01_03
Naidoo, V., & Wu, T. (2014). Innovations in marketing of higher education: Foreign market entry mode of not-for-profit universities. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 29(6), 546–558. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBIM-07-2013-0153
Nicholls, S. (2018). Influences on international student choice of study destination: Evidence from the United States. Journal of International Students, 8(2), 597–622. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1249043
O’Malley, B. (2020, April 10). UUK seeks billions in recovery funding for universities. Retrieved December 13, 2020, from University World News website: https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20200410115928868
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2020). Education at a Glance 2020. https://doi.org/10.1787/69096873-en
Pandit, K. (2013). International students and diversity. In H. C. Alberts & H. . Hazen (Eds.), International Students and Scholars in the United States (pp. 131–141). https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137024473_7
Rosner, B. (1983). Percentage points for a generalized ESD many-outlier procedure. Technometrics, 25(2), 165–172. https://doi.org/10.1080/00401706.1983.10487848
Schulmann, P., & Le, C. (2018). Navigating a new paradigm for international student recruitment. In World Education Services. Retrieved from World Education Services website: https://knowledge.wes.org/research-report-new-paradigm-student-recruitment.html
Shapiro, S. S., & Wilk, M. B. (1965). An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika, 52(3–4), 591–611. https://doi.org/10.2307/2333709
Smith, C., & Demjanenko, T. (2011). Solving the international student retention puzzle. Retrieved from http://www.uwindsor.ca/international-development/sites/uwindsor.ca.international-development/files/final_report_sisrp_july_26_2011_0.pdf
Snedecor, G., & Cochran, W. (1989). Statistical methods. In Statistical Methods (8th ed.). Iowa City, IA: Iowa State University Press.
Teichler, U. (2017). Internationalisation trends in Higher Education and the changing role of International Student Mobility. Journal of International Mobility, 5(1), 216. https://doi.org/10.3917/jim.005.0179
UNESCO. (n.d.). The UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved January 11, 2021, from http://glossary.uis.unesco.org/glossary/en/home
Universities Australia. (2020, June 3). COVID-19 to cost universities $16 billion by 2023. Retrieved December 13, 2020, from Study in Australia website: https://www.universitiesaustralia.edu.au/media-item/covid-19-to-cost-universities-16-billion-by-2023/
Vyas, L., & Yu, B. (2018). An investigation into the academic acculturation experiences of Mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong. Higher Education, 76(5), 883–901. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-018-0248-z
Yilmaz, R. (2017). Exploring the role of e-learning readiness on student satisfaction and motivation in flipped classroom. Computers in Human Behavior, 70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.085
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Education
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.