What Drives Student Recommendations?

An Empirical Investigation of the Learning Experiences of International Students in Australia, the UK, and the US


  • John L. Dennis
  • Ravichandran Ammigan University of Delaware


international students, learning experience, marketing and recruitment, recommendation, satisfaction


Insights into how student learning experiences impact university recommendation can be critical for higher education institutions as they seek to optimize enrollment and retention efforts in an increasingly competitive and highly unpredictable global market. This comparative study examines the extent to which satisfaction with various aspects of the academic environment influences recommendation for over 23,000 international undergraduate students at universities in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Five key implications for the quality of teaching and learning, English language support, career development and readiness, access to information and communication technologies, and assessment and benchmarking are discussed. Results from a factor analysis reveal an underlying structure to the learning variables used in this research and provide empirical support for its application in future investigations of the academic experiences of international students in higher education.


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Author Biographies

John L. Dennis

JOHN L. DENNIS, PhD, is an affiliated professor with the Centre for Higher Education Internationalisation, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, an adjunct professor at the University of Perugia, and a visiting professor at John Cabot University. As a behavioral scientist, he does research on how people intentionally influence their lives and behavior. Email: john.dennis@unipg.it

Ravichandran Ammigan, University of Delaware

RAVICHANDRAN AMMIGAN, PhD, is the Associate Provost for International Programs and an Assistant Professor of Education at the University of Delaware. His primary area of research focuses on the experiences of international students, with an emphasis on campus living, learning, and support services. Email: rammigan@udel.edu



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How to Cite

Dennis, J. L., & Ammigan, R. (2022). What Drives Student Recommendations? : An Empirical Investigation of the Learning Experiences of International Students in Australia, the UK, and the US. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Education, 11(1), 1–27. Retrieved from https://www.ojed.org/index.php/jise/article/view/4086