Re-imagining Pedagogy for Early Childhood Education Pre-service Curriculum in the Face of the COVID 19 Pandemic
Keywords:Curriculum, COVID-19, Early Childhood Education, design thinking theory, kindergarten, pre-service teachers
COVID-19 has caused a change in the demography of the Early Childhood Education (ECE) teaching fraternity. This paper problematizes the ECE curriculum delivery gap created by the influence of COVID-19. Central to this paper is the assumption that online learning might limit the stimulation of children’s holistic development. Reflecting on their experiences, the authors examine the influence of COVID-19 on pedagogy for ECE pre-service and kindergarten curriculum through the lens of design thinking theory. The reflections are based on one open and distance learning institution in South Africa and one kindergarten program in Canada. The findings reveal challenges, such as digital inequality brought on by socio-economic imbalances and opportunities. The authors suggest the digital literacy skills needed to mitigate the influence of COVID-19 in the ECE pre-service and kindergarten curriculum delivery.
Ahmed, H., Allaf, M., & Elghazaly, H. (2020). COVID-19 and medical education. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases. https://doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30226-7
Akbari, E., & McCuaig, K. (2014) Early childhood education report 2014. Institute for Studies in Education.
Allen, J. M., & Wright, S. E. (2014). Integrating theory and practice in the pre-service teacher education practicum. Teachers and Teaching, 20(2), 136–151.
Annink, A. (2017). Using the research journal during qualitative data collection in a cross-cultural context. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 7(1), 1–17. https://doi:10.1515/erj-2015-0063
Atiles, J. T., Jones, J. L., & Kim, H. (2012). Field experience+ inclusive ECE classrooms= increased preservice teacher efficacy in working with students with developmental delays or disabilities. Educational Research Quarterly, 36(2), 63–87.
Bashan, B., & Holsblat, R. (2006). Reflective journals as a research tool: The case of student teachers’ development of teamwork. Cogent Education, 4(1), 1-15
Barblett, L., Knaus, M., & Barratt-Pugh, C. (2016). The pushes and pulls of pedagogy in the early years: Competing knowledge and the erosion of play-based learning. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 41(4), 36–43.
Barnett, S., Yarosz, D., Thomas, J. & Hornbeck, A. (2006). Educational effectiveness of a Vygotskian approach to preschool education: A randomized trial. National Institute for Early Education Research.
Bashan, B., & Holsblat, R. (2017). Reflective journals as a research tool: The case of student teachers' development of teamwork. Cogent Education, 4(1). https://doi:10.1080/2331186X.2017.1374234
Blewitt, C., O'Connor, A., Morris, H., Mousa, A., Bergmeier, H., Nolan, A., Skouteris, H. (2020). Do curriculum-based social and emotional learning programs in early childhood education and care strengthen teacher outcomes? A systematic literature review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(3), 1049.https:// doi:10.3390/ijerph17031049
Cohrssen, C., Church, A., Ishimine, K., & Tayler, C. (2013). Playing with maths: Facilitating the learning in play-based learning. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 38(1), 95–99. http://doi:10.1177/183693911303800115
Connelly, M. F., Clandinin, J. D. (1990). Stories of experience and narrative inquiry. Educational Researcher, 19(5), 2–14.
Crawford, J., Butler-Henderson, K., Rudolph, J., & Glowatz, M. (2020). COVID-19: 20 Countries' Higher Education Intra-Period Digital Pedagogy Responses. Journal of Applied Teaching and Learning (JALT), 3(1).
Devercelli, A. (2020, April 16). Supporting the youngest learners and their families in the COVID-19 (coronavirus) response.
Ducharme, E. R., Ducharme, M. K., & Dunkin, M. J. (2002). Teacher education. In J. W. Guthrie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of education (2nd ed.), Vol. 7. (pp. 2438–2448). Macmillan.
Elo, S., Kääriäinen, M., Kanste, O. (2014). Qualitative Content Analysis: A Focus on Trustworthiness. SAGE Open, 4(1), 1-10.
Ferrel, M. N., & Ryan, J. J. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on medical education. Cureus, 12(3), e7492. https://doi:10.7759/cureus.7492
Fullan, M. (2013). Stratosphere: Integrating technology, pedagogy, and change knowledge. Pearson.
Garvis, S., Lemon, N., Pendergast, D., & Yim, B. (2013). A content analysis of early childhood teachers’ theoretical and practical experiences with infants and toddlers in Australian teacher education programs. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38(9), 3.
Goh, P., & Sandars, J. (2020). A vision of the use of technology in medical education after the COVID-19 pandemic. Mededpublish, 9(1). https://doi:10.15694/mep.2020.000049.1
Gong, X., & Wang, P. (2017). A comparative study of pre-service education for preschool teachers in china and the united states. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 19(2), 84–110.
Hamre, B. K. (2014). Teachers' daily interactions with children: An essential ingredient in effective early childhood programs. Child Development Perspectives, 8(4), 223–230. https://doi:10.1111/cdep.12090
Hatch, J. A., & Grieshaber, S. (2002). Child observation and accountability in early childhood education: Perspectives from Australia and the United States. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29(4), 227. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015177406713
Hewes, J. (2006). Let the children play: Nature’s answer to early learning. Early Childhood Learning Knowledge Centre.
Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. Educause Review, 27.
Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council. (2015). Transforming the workforce for children birth through age 8: A unifying foundation. The National Academies Press.
Jale, A., & Ozcan, S. (2009). Early childhood education pre-service teachers’ images of teacher and beliefs about teaching. Journal of Inonu University Faculty of Education, 10(3), 105–122. Retrieved from https://doaj.org/article/d3fd64363beb4f63a62dc0b2f697a902
Kankam, G., & Abroampa, W. K. (2015). Early childhood education pre-service teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge in teaching psychosocial skills across the kindergarten curriculum in Ghana. Asia-Pacific Journal of Research in Early Childhood Education, 10(1), 67–86. doi:10.17206/apjrece.2016.10.1.67
Kerkhoff, S., Paul, C., & Spires, H. (2018). Digital literacy for the 21st century. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Encyclopedia of information science and technology: Cu-ed (pp. 2235–2242). IGI Global.
Kimbell, L. (2011). Rethinking design thinking: Part I. Design and Culture, 3(3), 285-306. https://doi:10.2752/175470811X13071166525216
Kolucki, B., & Lemish, D. (2011). Communicating with children: Principles and practices to nurture, inspire, excite, educate and heal. United Nations Children’s Fund. https://www.unicef.org/cwc/files/CwC_Final_Nov-2011(1).pdf
Lee, Y. A., & Hemer-Patnode, L. (2010). Developing teacher candidates’ knowledge, skills, and dispositions to teach diverse students. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 37(3), 222–235.
McKie, B., Manswell Butty, J.-A., & Green, R. (2012). Reading, reasoning, and literacy: strategies for early childhood education from the analysis of classroom observations. Early Childhood Education Journal, 40(1), 55–61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-011-0489-2
McLachlan, C., Fleer, M., & Edwards, S. (2018). Early childhood curriculum: Planning, assessment and implementation. Cambridge University Press.
Meloy, B., Schachner, A., & Learning Policy Institute. (2019). Early childhood essentials: A framework for aligning child skills and educator competencies. Learning Policy Institute.
Melrose, S. (2010). Encyclopedia of case study research: Naturalistic generalization. SAGE.
Moen, T. (2006). Reflections on the Narrative Research Approach. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(4), 56-69.
Moorhouse, B. L. (2020). Adaptations to a face-to-face initial teacher education course ‘forced’ online due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Education for Teaching, 1–3. https://doi:10.1080/02607476.2020.1755205
National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2010). NAEYC standards for initial and advanced early childhood professional preparation programs. NAEYC.
Nuttall, J., & Ortlipp, M. (2012). Practicum assessment of culturally and linguistically diverse early childhood pre-service teachers. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 20(1), 47–60. https://doi:10.1080/1350293X.2012.650011
Ragpot, L. (2017). Knowledge of child development in the interface of theory and practice in foundation phase teacher education. South African Journal of Childhood Education, 7(1), 6–e6. https://doi:10.4102/sajce.v7i1.501
Razzouk, R., & Shute, V. (2012). What is design thinking and why is it important? Review of Educational Research, 82(3), 330–348. https://doi:10.3102/0034654312457429
Ridgway, A., & Quinones, G. (2012). How do early childhood students conceptualize play-based curriculum? Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(12), n12.
Rose, S. (2020). Medical student education in the time of COVID-19. Jama, https://doi:10.1001/jama.2020.5227
Rowe, P. G. (1987). Design thinking. MIT Press.
Stake, R. (1995). The art of case study research. SAGE.
Theoret, C., & Ming, X. (2020). Our education, our concerns: Medical student education impact due to COVID-19. Medical Education, doi:10.1111/medu.14181
Toquero, C. M. (2020). Challenges and opportunities for higher education amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Philippine context. Pedagogical Research, 5(4).
White, E. J., Peter, M., Sims, M., Rockel, J., & Kumeroa, M. (2016). First-year practicum experiences for preservice early childhood education teachers working with birth-to-3-year-olds: An Australasian experience. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education: Preparing Early Childhood Teachers for Infant Care and Education, 37(4), 282–300. https://doi:10.1080/10901027.2016.1245221
Wood, E., & Hedges, H. (2016). Curriculum in early childhood education: critical questions about content, coherence, and control. The Curriculum Journal, 27(3), 387–405.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Education
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.