Statistical Analysis of Study Abroad Experiences of International Students in Five Major Host Countries of Europe
Keywords:acculturation, academic support, discrimination, Erasmus programme, international students, satisfaction, study abroad
This paper examines a large dataset of questionnaire responses (n=5,321) of international students who have studied abroad (mainly via the Erasmus+ programme). Their acculturation experiences with campus discrimination (an acculturative stressor), academic support (a mediator of acculturation) and academic satisfaction (an outcome of acculturation) are analyzed and compared among five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Portugal). The measures of acculturation experiences are verified by Principal Component Analysis, which yields three components; Campus Discrimination, Academic Support, and Academic Satisfaction. The components are used as aggregate indexes for ranking the five major destination countries in Europe based on students’ experiences. A country-by-country comparison suggests that experiences from study abroad are most positive in Germany.
Alfranseder, E., Fellinger, J., & Taivere, M. (2011). E-value-ate your exchange: Research report of the ESN survey 2010. Brussels, Belgium: Erasmus Student Network.
Altbach, P. G., & Knight, J. (2007). The internationalization of higher education: Motivations and realities. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3–4), 290–305. doi:10.1177/1028315307303542
Atri, A., Sharma, M., & Cottrell, R. (2007). Role of social support, hardiness, and acculturation as predictors of mental health among international students of Asian Indian origin. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 27(1), 59–73. doi:10.2190/IQ.27.1.e
Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 46(1), 5–34.
Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Breugelmans, S. M., Chasiotis, A., & Sam, D. L. (2011). Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brooks, R., & Waters, J. (2011). Student mobilities, migration and the internationalization of higher education. London: Palgrave MacMillan.
Council of the European Union. (2011). Council conclusions on the modernisation of higher education. 3128th Education, Youth, Culture and Sport Council Meeting, Brussels, Belgium. Retrieved from www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/educ/126375.pdf
De Vaus, D. A. (2002). Analyzing social science data: Fifty key problems in data analysis. London: Sage.
European Commission. (2014). ERASMUS facts, figures, trends. The European Union Support for Student and Staff Exchanges and University Cooperation in 2012–2013. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
European Commission. (2017). Erasmus+ Programme Guide. Brussels, Belgium: Author.
European Commission. (2018). A modern budget for a Union that protects, empowers and defends: Questions and answers. Brussels, Belgium: Author. Retrieved from http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-18-3621_en.htm
Groeppel-Klein, A., Germelmann, C. C., & Glaum, M. (2010). Intercultural interaction needs more than mere exposure: Searching for drivers of student interaction at border universities. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34(3), 253–267.
Gürüz, K. (2011). Higher education and international student mobility in the global knowledge economy: Revised and updated second edition. New York: SUNY Press.
Hanassab, S. (2006). Diversity, international students, and perceived discrimination: Implications for educators and counselors. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(2), 157–172. doi:10.1177/1028315305283051
Jamaludin, N. L., Sam, D. L., & Sandal, G. M. (2018). Destination motivation, cultural orientation, and adaptation: International students' destination-loyalty intention. Journal of International Students, 8(1), 38–65. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1101030
Josek, M., Fernandez, J. A., Perez-Encinas, A., Zimonjic, B., de Vocht, L. & Falisse, M. (2016). The international-friendliness of universities: Research report of the ESNsurvey 2016. Brussels, Belgium: Erasmus Student Network AISBL.
King, R. (2003). International student migration in Europe and the institutionalisation of identity as" Young Europeans". In J. Doomernik & H. Knippenberg (Eds.), Migration and immigrants: Between policy and reality. Essays in honour of Hans Van Amersfoort (pp. 155–179). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Aksant Academic Publishers.
King, R., Findlay, A., & Ahrens, J. (2010). International student mobility literature review. Bristol, England: Higher Education Funding Council for England.
King, R., Ruiz-Gelices, E., & Findlay, A. M. (2004). International student mobility: Final report. London: Sussex Centre for Migration Research.
Mareš, P., Rabušic, L., & Soukup, P. (2015). Analýza sociálně vědních dat (nejen) v SPSS. Brno: Masaryk University.
Mahmood, H., & Beach, D. (2018). Analysis of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation among international students at a non-metropolitan university. Journal of International Students, 8(1), 284–307. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1134307
Murphy-Lejeune, E. (2002). Student mobility and narrative in Europe: The new strangers. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2016). Education at a Glance 2016: OECD Indicators. Paris: Author. doi:10.1787/eag-2016-en
Perez-Encinas, A., & Ammigan, R. (2016). Support services at Spanish and US institutions: A driver for international student satisfaction. Journal of International Students, 6(4), 984–998.
Perez-Encinas, A., Rodriguez-Pomeda, J., & Josek, M. (2017). Problematic areas of host university support services for short-term mobility students. Journal of International Students, 7(4), 1030–1047. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1035959
Safipour, J., Wenneberg, S., & Hadziabdic, E. (2017). Experience of education in the international classroom: A systematic literature review. Journal of International Students, 7(3), 806–824. doi:10.5281/zenodo.570035
Sam, D. L. (2001). Satisfaction with life among international students: An exploratory study. Social Indicators Research, 53, 315–337.
Sandhu, D. S., & Asrabadi, B. R. (1998). An acculturative stress scale for international students: A practical approach to stress management. In C. P. Zalaquett & R. J. Woods (Eds.), Evaluating stress: A book of resources (Vol. 2, pp. 1–33). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Education.
Smith, R. A., & Khawaja, N. G. (2011). A review of the acculturation experiences of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 699–713. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.08.004
Sullivan, C., & Kashubeck-West, S. (2015). The interplay of international students’ acculturative stress, social support, and acculturation modes. Journal of International Students, 5(1), 1–11.
Tsoukalas, I. (2008). The double life of Erasmus students. In M. Byram & F. Dervin (Eds.), Students, staff and academic mobility in higher education (pp. 131–152). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars.
Vaccaro, A. (2010). What lies beneath seemingly positive campus climate results: Institutional sexism, racism, and male hostility toward equity initiatives and liberal bias. Equity & Excellence in Education, 43(2), 202–215. doi:10.1080/10665680903520231
Wang, K. T., Li, F., Wang, Y., Hunt, E. N., Yan, G. C., & Currey, D. E. (2014). The International Friendly Campus Scale: Development and psychometric evaluation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 42, 118–128. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2014.05.004
Ward, C. A., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock. Hove, East Sussex: Routledge.
Wei, M., Wang, K. T., Heppner, P. P., & Du, Y. (2012). Ethnic and mainstream social connectedness, perceived racial discrimination, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(3), 486–493. doi:10.1037/a0028000
Zhang, J., & Goodson, P. (2011). Predictors of international students’ psychosocial adjustment to life in the United States: A systematic review. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(2), 139–162. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2010.11.011
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of International Students
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
All published articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Unported License.