The Differential Impact of Learning Experiences on International Student Satisfaction and Institutional Recommendation




international students, learning experience, learning recommendation, satisfaction surveys, student re


This research uses i-graduate’s International Student Barometer to investigate whether overall satisfaction and institutional recommendation are influenced by student nationality and destination country, while controlling for the covariates of learning experiences. The result of our analysis is the identification of a conceptual framework for the differences between evaluations (reflecting satisfaction with an experience) and behavioral intentions (willingness to recommend that experience to others), and this important frame has consequences for how institutions recruit and retain international students. These results indicate that student nationality, destination country, and learning experience differentially influence both overall satisfaction and institutional recommendation. The study finds that student nationality and destination country significantly influenced both satisfaction and recommendation. While learning experience “teaching” variables (“program organization” and “quality of lectures”) mattered most for overall satisfaction, “study” variables (“English language support” and “employability skills”) were mainly associated with institutional recommendation. 

Author Biographies

Ravichandran Ammigan, University of Delaware, USA

RAVICHANDRAN AMMIGAN, PhD, is Associate Deputy Provost for International Programs and Assistant Professor of Education at the University of Delaware. His primary research focuses on the international student experience at institutions of higher education globally. 


John Lawrence Dennis, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy

JOHN L. DENNIS, PhD, is an affiliated professor with the Centre for Higher Education Internationalisation, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, an adjunct professor at the University of Perugia, and a visiting professor at John Cabot University. As a behavioral scientist, he does research on how people intentionally influence their lives and behavior

Elspeth Jones, Leeds Beckett University, UK

ELSPETH JONES is Emerita Professor of the Internationalisation of Higher Education, Leeds Beckett University UK, and honorary visiting fellow and member of the Scientific Committee, Centre for Higher Education Internationalisation (CHEI), Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan. She has published widely and is editor of the book series, Internationalization in Higher Education (Routledge).


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How to Cite

Ammigan, R., Dennis, J. L. ., & Jones, E. (2021). The Differential Impact of Learning Experiences on International Student Satisfaction and Institutional Recommendation. Journal of International Students, 11(2), 299–321.



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