Incorporating Eastern and Western Learning Perspectives into Western Learning Environment


  • Bo Chang Ball State University, USA


Autonomy, collaboration, critical thinking, diverse ideas, structure, individual autonomy×


This paper focuses on incorporating Eastern and Western learning perspectives into an American learning environment. The design-based research approach is employed. The following principles influenced by the Eastern and Western perspectives of learning were implemented in course design: providing pre-sequenced materials with high structure and flexible options, valuing group collaboration and individual autonomy, and promoting diverse ideas and critical thinking. Responses from 38 participants show that students from the Western learning environment also favor the pre-sequenced course materials with high structure. Even though they prefer independent and individual work, in an online environment a certain degree of collaborative work is necessary to create interactive dynamics and a sense of presence. Critical thinking in an online environment is not always adequately executed, which does not support the Western learning perspective of favoring critical thinking.


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Author Biography

Bo Chang, Ball State University, USA

BO CHANG, PhD, associate professor at Ball State University. Her research interests include knowledge-related topics, different tools in learning, and the social aspect of adult learning in a variety of contexts. For more information about her, please check the following link: ORCID:  Email:


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How to Cite

Chang, B. (2021). Incorporating Eastern and Western Learning Perspectives into Western Learning Environment. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Education, 10(1), 16–40. Retrieved from