Stronger Together: Educational Service Augmenters and Traditional Predictors of Adjustment for International Students in the US




international students, academic adjustment, social adjustment, marketing research, belonging, educational service augmenters


Drawing on frameworks from marketing research literature, this study indicates that educational service augmenters (e.g., academic advising, writing support services, immigration advising, etc.) are significantly related to international students’ academic adjustment. The results indicate educational, campus, and social support services explained an additional 38% of variance in international students’ academic adjustment, beyond traditional predictors of academic adjustment alone, i.e., language proficiency, friendships, and welcoming campus attitude, for a combined 69% of the total variance in academic adjustment. The results highlight the university’s responsibility in international student integration into local communities and how educational service augmenters and traditional predictors act as complementary, yet distinct, predictors of academic and social adjustment.


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Author Biographies

Cong Cong

Dr. Cong Cong is a graduate of the Higher Education doctoral program at Old Dominion University. Her research and writing explore international student engagement and adaptation. She may be contacted at

Chris Glass, Old Dominion University

Dr. Chris R. Glass is an Associate Professor in the Department of Education Foundations & Leadership. His research and writing examine global student mobility in higher education. He may be contacted at


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How to Cite

Cong, C., & Glass, C. (2019). Stronger Together: Educational Service Augmenters and Traditional Predictors of Adjustment for International Students in the US. Journal of Comparative & International Higher Education, 11(Winter), 25–35.



Winter 2019 Special Edition