Entrance and Persistence in U.S. Academe for Individuals with Multiple Outsider Identities

A Critical Race Theory Analysis

  • Mustafa Icel University of Missouri of Saint Louis
  • Matthew Davis University of Missouri of Saint Louis
Keywords: African American, immigration, microaggressions, racism, stereotypes, adjustment, Turkish National


This study examines the experience of African-American academics with racial microaggressions, racism, and stereotypes. Exploring this subtle racism allows for an understanding of Turkish ethnic students’ ability to adapt to doctoral programs at U.S. institutions of higher education. Using critical race theory as a framework, researchers determined that Turkish International students have a challenge for adjustment, access to the U.S. job market, and the transition into a new culture. Five subjects were selected to participate in a self-recorded interview to support this study. The interview questions based Turkish ethnic students’ adjustment in U.S higher education institutions on three stages: 1. Before the Ph.D. program, 2. During the Ph.D. program, 3. After the Ph.D. program. The second and third stages also focus on students’ entry into an academic job setting and survival in academia.


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Author Biographies

Mustafa Icel, University of Missouri of Saint Louis

MUSTAFA ICEL Mustafa Icel is a Ph.D. student in University of Missouri of Saint. Louis (UMSL).Mr. Icel started his teaching career in the private high school. After 3 years of teaching in private high school, he spent his entire career in urban districts in Cleveland, Ohio; Cincinnati, Ohio; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and currently in St. Louis, Missouri. His research interest is in STEM education.

Matthew Davis, University of Missouri of Saint Louis

MATTHEW DAVIS is associate professor of educational foundations at the University of Missouri-St. Louis (USA). His major teaching and research interests are educational history, policy, and politics as well as critical race perspectives in educational research.