A Dream Deferred?

An Examination of Black Education in the United States

  • Andrea Smith University of West Georgia, USA
Keywords: student achievement, equity, equality, black education


The history of education in the United States abounds with double themes and purposes for education: schooling for democratic citizenship and schooling for second-class citizenship. Conceived as a means for great equalization, history echoes the intense disapproval of formal education for African Americans since the conception of the United States. The article places the discussion against the larger backdrop of national events within a political, cultural, and economic context. It further offers fresh insights into the African American commitment to education as they persisted in their struggle to develop an educational system in accordance with their own needs and desires with the hope that their work would transcend generations to come.






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Author Biography

Andrea Smith, University of West Georgia, USA

Andrea Smith, Ed.D., is an Assistant Professor at the University of West Georgia in the Department of Early Childhood through Secondary Education. Andrea received a BS in Early Childhood Education, an MS in Social Foundations in Education from Georgia State University and an EdD in Educational Leadership from the University of Georgia. She is an active member of numerous professional organizations such as the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and the National Association for Multicultural Education (NAME). Her research and publications focus on the intersectionality of race and class in education, culturally responsive pedagogy, and educational equity. Her scholarship examines these issues by illuminating the voices of youth and adults who have been historically and traditionally marginalized in schools and society. Email: andreas@westga.edu