Are schools replaceable?

Creative destruction in the post-pandemic society




Blended Learning, Education, Educational Innovation, Schools, Socioeconomic Influences


Lockdown measures and school closures due to coronavirus have forced governments, schools, and teachers to find new ways to ensure learning continuity. Initiatives differ according to the country’s level of development and the socioeconomic status of students. The situation has exposed and has amplified the relationship between wealth and richer home learning environments and is also evidencing and magnifying the digital divides between students and between schools. Simultaneously, innovation processes seem to be occurring in response to the restriction measures. The purpose of this short essay is to discuss the consequences of COVID-19 on students, pedagogy, and schools, particularly the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and possibilities of innovation in education. Based on Schumpeter’s concept of creative destruction we suggest that while some institutions may have the possibility of reconverting themselves by developing blended models of education, for a vast worldwide majority of students, traditional – face-to-face and disconnected – schools are irreplaceable.


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Author Biographies

Mariano Narodowski, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Argentina

MARIANO NARODOWSKI, PhD, is a full professor at Universidad Torcuato Di Tella’s School of Government, Buenos Aires, Argentina. He has published research articles in journals such as Journal of Education Policy, Compare, and Comparative Education, among others, and is the author of 20 books. He served as Education Minister of the City of Buenos Aires. In addition, Dr. Narodowski has been a Visiting Professor at various universities around the world and has received research awards and grants such as the John Simon Guggenheim Fellow or the Oustanding Scholar Award (LASIG-CIES). He is a founding member of Pansophia Project and member of the Advisory Council of the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture (OEI). His major research interests include education policy and the future of education. Email:

Maria Delfina Campetella, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Argentina

MARÍA DELFINA CAMPETELLA, Bachelor in Political Science and Government, and currently pursuing her Master’s degree on Education Policy. She is a research assistant at Universidad Torcuato Di Tella and a member of Pansophia Project. Her major research interests include education policy, education systems, and children and youth identity and learning trajectories. Email:


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How to Cite

Narodowski, M., & Campetella, M. D. (2021). Are schools replaceable? Creative destruction in the post-pandemic society. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Education, 9(2), xiv-xviii.