Cultural intelligence, Age and Prior Travel Experience as Predictors of Acculturative Stress and Depression among International Students Studying in China
Mental health problems commonly prevail among international students as a result of acculturative difficulties. In light of this, the studyattempted to determine the role of cultural intelligence, age and prior travel experience on acculturative stress and depression and also whether acculturative stress mediatedthe cultural intelligence-depression relationship. 506international university students studying in China completeda battery of tests assessing their cultural intelligence, acculturative stress and depression. Cultural intelligence showed significantly negativecorrelationswith both acculturative stress and depression. Students’ prior travel experiences and age also significantlycorrelated withboth acculturative stress and depression. Acculturative stress mediated the relationship between cultural intelligence and depression. Implication, limitations and future study directions were discussed as well.
Akhtar, M., & Kröner-Herwig, B. (2015). Acculturative stress among international students in context of socio-demographic variables and coping styles. Current Psychology, 34(4), 803-815. doi: 10.1007/s12144-015-9303-4
Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K. Y., Templer, K. J., Tay, C., & Chandrasekar, N. A. (2007). Cultural intelligence: Its measurement and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance. Management and Organization Review, 3(3), 335-371. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8784.2007.00082.x
Ang, S., & VanDyne, L. (2008). Handbook of cultural intelligence: Theory, measures and applications. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.
Arslan, G., Ayranci, U., Unsal, A., & Arslantas, D. (2009). Prevalence of depression, its correlates among students, and its effect on health-related quality of life in a Turkish university. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 114(3), 170-177. doi: 10.1080/03009730903174339
Ayoob, M., & Alsultan, A. (2017). Cultural intelligence as a moderator of acculturative stress to health among collegestudents. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 6(4), 1905-1910. doi: DOI: 10.21275/ART20172777
Ayoob, M., Wani, N., Ahmad, M., Jan, M., & Dar, B. (2015). Cultural intelligence as a predictor of acculturative stress and psychological well-being among college students. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 41(1), 86-94.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1993
Beiter, R., Nash, R., McCrady, M., Rhoades, D., Linscomb, M., Clarahan, M., & Sammut, S. (2015). The prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of college students. Journal of Affective Disorders, 173(Supplement C), 90-96. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.054
Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46(1), 5-34. doi: doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.1997.tb01087.x
Berry, J. W. (2003). Conceptual approaches to acculturation. In K. M. Chun, P. Balls Organista, & G. Marín (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 17-37 ).
Berry, J. W. (2005). Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(6), 697-712. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.07.013
Bevis, T. B. (2002). At a glance: International students in the United States. 11, 12-17.
Bista, K. (2019). Exploring the field: Understanding the international student experience. In K. Bista (Ed.), Global perspectives on international student experiences in higher (pp. 1-16). New York, NY: Routledge.
Black, S. J., Mendenhall, E. M., & Oddou, G. (1991). Toward a comprehensive model of international adjustment: An integration of multiple theoretical perspective. The Academy of Management Review, 16(2), 291-317. doi: 10.2307/258863
Brunsting, N. C., Zachry, C., & Takeuchi, R. (2018). Predictors of undergraduate international student psychosocial adjustment to US universities: A systematic review from 2009-2018. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 66, 22-33. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2018.06.002
Cho, Y. J., Jang, Y., Ko, J. E., Lee, S. H., & Moon, S. K. (2017). Acculturation, acculturative stress, and depressive symptoms in international migrants: A Study with vietnamese women in South Korea. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. doi: 10.1007/s10903-017-0661-x
Crowne, K. A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence? Business Horizons, 51(5), 391-399. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2008.03.010
Du, H., Li, X., Lin, D., & Tam, C. C. (2015). Collectivistic orientation, acculturative stress, cultural self-efficacy, and depression: A longitudinal study among Chinese internal migrants. Community Mental Health Journal, 51(2), 239-248. doi: 10.1007/s10597-014-9785-9
Earley, P. C., & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Elyasi, F., Ahmadi, M., Mohsenimoalemkoale, N., Jafari, S. N., Hoseini, S. M., & Hoseini, S. H. (2017). Relationship between cultural intelligence and mental health in students of the Medical University of Mazandaran in 2017. Future of Medical Education Journal, 7(3), 34-39. doi: 10.22038/fmej.2017.25605.1164
Eskanadrieh, S., Liu, Y., Yamashina, H., Kono, K., Arai, A., B. Lee, R., & Tamashiro, H. (2012). Depressive symptoms among international university students in northern Japan: Prevalence and associated factors. Journal of International Health, 27(2), 165-170. doi: 10.11197/jaih.27.165
Ghahremani, D. G., Monterosso, J., Jentsch, J. D., Bilder, R. M., & Poldrack, R. A. (2010). Neural components underlying behavioral flexibility in human reversal learning. Cerebral Cortex, 20(8), 1843-1852. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhp247
Gravetter, F., & Wallnau, L. (2014). Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Harrison, J. K., & Brower, H. H. (2011). The impact of cultural intelligence and psychological hardiness on homesickness among study abroad students. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21(Fall 2011), 31-62. Available at https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ991042.pdf
Ibrahim, A. K., Kelly, S. J., Adams, C. E., & Glazebrook, C. (2013). A systematic review of studies of depression prevalence in university students. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(3), 391-400. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.11.015
Khan, K. (2015). Predicting effect of cultural intelligence on acculturative stress. Journal of Ravishankar University, Part-A, 19-20, 23-29.
Khan, K., & Hasan, B. (2016). Validation of the 20-item cultural intelligence scale in Indian within country migrated students. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(2), 14-23.
Krämer, A., Pröfer-Krämer, L., Stock, C., & Tshiananga, J. T. (2004). Differences in Health Determinants Between International and Domestic Students at a German University. Journal of American College Health, 53(3), 127-132. doi: 10.3200/JACH.53.3.127-132
Le, H., Jiang, Z., & Nielsen, I. (2016). Cognitive cultural intelligence and life satisfaction of migrant workers: The roles of career engagement and social injustice. Social Indicators Research. doi: 10.1007/s11205-016-1393-3
Lin, Y.-c., Chen, A. S.-y., & Song, Y.-c. (2012). Does your intelligence help to survive in a foreign jungle? The effects of cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence on cross-cultural adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(4), 541-552. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2012.03.001
Liu, Y., Chen, X., Li, S., Yu, B., Wang, Y., & Yan, H. (2016). Path analysis of acculturative stress components and their relationship with depression among international students in China. Stress and Health, 32(5), 524-532. doi: 10.1002/smi.2658
Livermore, D. (2011). The cultural intelligence difference: Master the one skill you can’t do without in today’s globabl economy. New York, NY: AMACOM.
Mesidor, J. K., & Sly, K. F. (2016). Factors that contribute to the adjustment of international students. Journal of International Students, 6(1), 262-282.
Mori, S. C. (2000). Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(2), 137-143. doi: DOI: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb02569.x
Mustaffa, C. S., & Ilias, M. (2013). Relationship between students adjustment factors and cross cultural adjustment: A survey at the northern university of Malaysia. Intercultural Communication Studies, 1(2013), 279-300.
Ng, K.-Y., & Earley, P. C. (2006). Culture and intelligence: Old constructs, new frontiers. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 4-19. doi: 10.1177/1059601105275251
Pilgrim, D., Rogers, A., & Pescosolido, B. (2011). The SAGE handbook of mental health and illness. London. Retrieved from http://sk.sagepub.com/reference/hdbk_mentalhealth. doi: 10.4135/9781446200988
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(4), 717-731. doi: 10.3758/BF03206553
Presbitero, A. (2016). Culture shock and reverse culture shock: The moderating role of cultural intelligence in international students’ adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 53(Supplement C), 28-38. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2016.05.004
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385-401. doi: 10.1177/014662167700100306
Richard, B., Reginald, W., & Brent, M. (2006). Cultural intelligence: Understanding behaviors that serve people’s goals. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 40-55. doi: 10.1177/1059601105275262
Romeo, L., Madelene, M., Susana, E., & Cristina, R. (2013). Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines. Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health, 44(6), 1098-1107. Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259848430
Sandhu, D. S., & Asrabadi, B. R. (1994). Development of an acculturative stress scale for international students: preliminary findings. Psychological Reports, 75(1), 435-448. doi: 10.2466/pr0.19188.8.131.525
Shamsuddin, K., Fadzil, F., Wan Ismail, W. S., Shah, S. A., Omar, K., Muhammad, N. A., . . . Mahadevan, R. (2013). Correlates of depression, anxiety and stress among Malaysian university students. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 6(4), 318-323. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2013.01.014
Smiljanic, I. (2017). The role of attachment, travel experiences and english proficiency in international students’ acculturative stress and depressive symptoms Journal of International Students, 7(2), 188-203.
Sümer, S., Poyrazli, S., & Grahame, K. (2008). Predictors of depression and anxiety among international students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86(4), 429-437. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2008.tb00531.x
Tamannaeifar, M., & Hesampour, F. (2016). The relationship between cultural and emotional intelligence with students' adjustment to university. International Academic Journal of Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management and Organization Review, 3(3), 1-13. Available at http://iaiest.com/dl/journals/6-%20IAJ%20of%20Organizational%20Behavior%20and%20Human%20Resource%20Management/v3-i9-sep2016/paper1.pdf
Tzu-Ping, Y., & Wei-Wen, C. (2017). The relationship between cultural intelligence and psychological well-being with the moderating effects of mindfulness: A study of international students in Taiwan. European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 5(1), 384-391. doi: 10.26417/ejms.v5i1.p384-391
Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., Yee Ng, K., Rockstuhl, T., Ling Tan, M., & Koh, C. (2012). Sub-dimensions of the four factor model of cultural intelligence: Expanding the conceptualization and measurement of cultural intelligence. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6(4). doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2012.00429.x
Wang, K. T., Heppner, P. P., Wang, L., & Zhu, F. (2015). Cultural intelligence trajectories in new international students: Implications for the development of cross-cultural competence. International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 4(1), 51-65. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ipp0000027
Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2005). The psychology of culture shock. London: Routledge.
Ward, C., Fischer, R., Zaid Lam, F. S., & Hall, L. (2008). The convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of scores on a self-report measure of cultural intelligence. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69(1), 85-105. doi: 10.1177/0013164408322001
Wei, M., Heppner, P. P., Mallen, M. J., Ku, T.-Y., Liao, K. Y.-H., & Wu, T.-F. (2007). Acculturative stress, perfectionism, years in the united states, and depression among Chinese international students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(4), 385–394. doi: 10.1037/0022-0184.108.40.2065
Wen, W., Hu, D., & Hao, J. (2017). International students’ experiences in China: Does the planned reverse mobility work? International Journal of Educational Development. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2017.03.004
Yamane, T. (1973). Statistics: An introductory analysis. Third edition. New York: Harper & Row.
Yeh, C. J., & Inose, M. (2003). International students' reported English fluency, social support satisfaction, and social connectedness as predictors of acculturative stress. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 16(1), 15-28. doi: 10.1080/0951507031000114058
Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of International Students
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
All published articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Unported License.