Mentoring and Supervising International Students in School Counseling Programs
Graduate counseling programs in the United States have increased their population of international students. However, limited studies have addressed the challenges of international students, specifically in school counseling programs. Considering the cultural disparities that exist for international school counseling students and the challenges associated with being an international student in general, this article identifies and delineates a culturally appropriate mentoring and supervision model that has the potential to shape the experiences of international students in school counseling training programs. The model presented through a case study argues that intentional mentoring and supervision for international school counseling students enhance productivity during students’ field experiences in U.S. school systems.
Akkurt, M. N., Ng, K., & Kolbert, J. (2018). Multicultural discussion as a moderator of counseling supervision-related constructs. International Journal of the Advancement of Counseling, 40(4), 455–468. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-018-9337-z
American Council on Education (2012). Mapping internationalization on U.S. campuses. Retrieved from http://www.acenet.edu
American School Counselor Association. (2012). National Model: A framework for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: ASCA National Model.
Anderson, E. M., & Shannon, A. L. (1988). Toward a conceptualization of mentoring. Journal of Teacher Education, 39, 38–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/002248718803900109
ASCA. (2016). ASCA ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved from https://www.schoolcounselor.org/asca/media/asca/Ethics/EthicalStandards2016.pdf
Behl, M., Laux, J. M., Roseman, C. P., Tiamiyu, M. & Spann, S. (2017). Needs and acculturative stress of international students in CACREP programs. Counselor Education and Supervision, 56(4), 305–318. https://doi.org/10.1002/ceas.12087
Bernard, J. M. (I 979). Supervisor training: A discrimination model. Counselor Education and Supervision, 19(1), 60–68. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6978.1979.tb00906.x
Bernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (I 998). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2014). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education
Boafo-Arthur, S. (2014). Acculturative experiences of Black-African international students. International Journal of Advanced Counseling, 36(2), 115–124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-013-9194-8
Borders, D. L. (2014). Best practices in clinical supervision: Another step in delineating effective supervision practice. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 68(2), 151–162. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.2014.68.2.151
Borders, D. L., Brown, J. B., & Purgason, L. L. (2015). Triadic supervision with practicum and internship counseling students: A peer supervision approach. The Clinical Supervisor, 34(2), 232–248. https://doi.org/10.1080/07325223.2015.1027024
Burlew, L. D., & Alleyne, V. L. (2010). A pedagogical paradigm for international graduate students studying community counseling. The Journal for Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 2(1), 23–36. http://repository.wcsu.edu/jcps/vol2/iss1/4
Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. (2016). CACREP vital statistics 2015: Results from a national survey of accredited programs. Alexandria, VA: Author. Retrieved from https://issuu.com/cacrep/docs/2015_cacrep_vital_statistics_report
CACREP. (2015). 2016 CACREP Standards. Retrieved from http://www.cacrep.org/for-programs/2016-cacrep-standards/
Education USA. (2018). What are English language programs? Retrieved from https://educationusa.state.gov/your-5-steps-us-study/research-your-options/english-language/what-are-english-language-programs
Hanassab, S., & Tidwell, R. (2002). International students in higher education: Identification of needs and implications for policy and practice. Journal of Studies in International Education, 6, 305–322. https://doi.org/10.1177/102831502237638
Hegarty, N. (2014). Where are we now - The presence and importance of international students to universities in the United States. Journal of International Students, 4(3), 223–235.
Hirai, R., Frazier, P., & Syed, M. (2015). Psychological and sociocultural adjustment of first year international students: Trajectories and predictors. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62(3), 438–452. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000085
Gautz, C. (2017). Rise in international students boosts universities' bottom line, diversity. Retrieved from http://www.crainsdetroit.com/article/20140803/NEWS/308039999/risein-international-students-boosts-universities-bottom-line
IIE. (2018). Open doors data: Enrollment trends. Retrieved from https://www.iie.org/en/Research-and-Insights/Open-Doors/Data/International-Students/Enrollment
John-Steiner, V., & Mahn H. (1996). Sociocultural approaches to learning and development: A Vygotskian framework. Educational Psychologist, 31, 191–206. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.1996.9653266}
Karaman, M. A. Schmit, M. K., Ulus, I. C., & Oliver, M. (2018). International counseling students' perception of ethics. Journal of International Students, 8(2), 677–695. http://jistudents.org/doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1250370
Ku, H. -Y., Lahman, M. K. E., Yeh, H. -T., & Cheng, Y. -C. (2008). Into the academy: Preparing and mentoring international doctoral students. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56(3), 365–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11423-007-9083-0
Lee, S. (2017). Peer support for international doctoral students in managing supervision relationships. Journal of International Students, 7(4), 1096–1103. https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.1035971
Leong, P. (2015). Coming to America: Assessing the patterns of acculturation, friendship formation, and the academic experiences of international students at a U.S. college. Journal of International Students, 5(4), 459–474.
Lunenberg, F.C. (2010). Schools as open systems. Schooling, 1(1), 1–5. Retrieved from http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Lununburg,%20Fred%20C.%20Schools%20as%20Open%20Systems%20Schooling%20V1%20N1%202010.pdf
Meany‐Walen, K., Davis‐Gage, D., & Lindo, N. (2016). The impact of wellness‐focused supervision on mental health counseling practicum students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 94(4), 464–472. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcad.12105
McDowell, T., Fang, S., Kosutic, I., & Griggs, J. (2012). Centering the voices of international students in family studies and family therapy graduate programs. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 38(1), 332–347. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2012.00310.x
Mellen, A., & Murdoch-Eaton, D. (2015). Supervisor or mentor: Is there a difference? Implications for paediatric practice. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 100(9), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2014-306834
Mittal, M., & Wieling, E. (2006). Training experiences of international doctoral students in marriage and family therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 32(3), 369–383. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2006.tb01613.x
Ng, K. (2006). International students in CACREP-accredited counseling programs. Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory, and Research, 34(1 & 2), 20–32.
Ng, K.., & Smith, S. D. (2009). Perception and experiences of international trainees in counseling and related programs. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 31(1), 57–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-008-9068-7
Ng, K., & Smith, S. D. (2012). Training level, acculturation, role ambiguity, and multicultural discussions in training and supervising international counseling students in the United States. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 34(1), 72–86. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-011-9130-8
Nilsson, J. E. (2007). International students in supervision: Course self-efficacy, stress, and cultural discussions in supervision. The Counselor Supervisor, 26(1 & 2), 35-47. https://doi.org/10.1300/J001v26n01_04
Norlin, J. M. (2009). Human behavior and the social environment: Social systems theory. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon.
Olivas, M., & Li, C. (2006). Understanding stressors of international students in higher education: What college counselors and personnel need to know. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 33(3), 217–222.
Park, S. Lee, H. J., & Wood, S. M. (2017). Experiences of international students in practicum and internship courses: A consensus qualitative research. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 9(2), 96–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.7729/92.1137
Peer, K., & McClendon, R. C. (2002). Sociocultural learning theory in practice: Implications for athletic training educators. Journal of Athletic Training, 37(4), 136–140.
Pillay, Y., Fulton, B., & Robertson, T. (2015). A conceptual framework for incorporating mentoring in supervision of mental health professionals. In A. A. Howley & M. B. Trube (Eds.), Mentoring for the professions: Orienting toward the future (pp. 353–362). Charlotte, NC; Information Age.
Ramsay, S., Jones, E., & Barker, M. (2007). Relationship between adjustment and support types: Young and mature-aged local and international first year university students. Higher Education, 54(2), 247–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10734-006-9001-0
Reese, S. (2006). The art of mentoring. Technique, 81(6), 14–19.
Schulte, S., & Choudaha, R. (2014). Improving the experiences of international students. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 46(6), 52–58. https://doi.org/10.1080/00091383.2014.969184
Tidwell, R., & Hanassab, S. (2007). New challenges for professional counsellors: The higher education international student population. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 20(4), 313–324. https://doi.org/10.1080/09515070701573927
United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (2018). Students and employment. Retrieved from https://www.uscis.gov/working-united-states/students-and-exchange-visitors/students-and-employment
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Yip, M. (2014). A win-win for international student mentor programming. Journal of College Admission, 224, 2–3. Retrieved from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/97394378/win-win-international-student-mentor-programming
Zhu, Y., & Degeneffe, C. E. (2011). International students in rehabilitation counseling education programs: Results from a national survey. Rehabilitation Education, 25(1 & 2), 73–86.
Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of International Students
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
All published articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 Unported License.