Kicking the Habit

Rethinking Academic Hypermobility in the Anthropocene

Authors

  • Max Crumley-Effinger
  • Blanca Torres-Olave

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v11iS1.3845

Keywords:

Internationalization, mobility, climate change, higher education, decoloniality

Abstract

Examining the hypermobility of many “elite” academic workers, this article situates mobility within the context of higher education and sustainability, decoloniality, and institutionalized expectations for academic travel. The mobility of HEI workers is described in relation to Anthropogenic climate change (ACC), which highlights the need for: (a) critical examination of and responses to the carbon footprint of academic workers; (b) exerting pressure to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) production associated with expected mobility; and (c) deliberate changes to professional mobility approaches that take into account issues of equity vis-à-vis knowledge production, the effects of ACC, and GHG production from academic air travel. We offer an instrument—in the form of queries—to provide starting points for individual deliberations and collective actions to begin addressing these three issue areas.

Author Biographies

Max Crumley-Effinger

MAX CRUMLEY-EFFINGER, MEd, is a doctoral candidate at Loyola University Chicago and an international student advisor at Virginia Tech University. His major research interests lie in the area of student immigration policy and environmental sustainability in international education. Email: mcrumleyeffinger@luc.edu. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7457-470X

Blanca Torres-Olave

BLANCA TORRES-OLAVE, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Higher Education and International Higher Education at Loyola University Chicago. Her research focuses on transitions from higher education to the STEM labor market, academic labor, and international higher education. Email: btorresolave@luc.edu. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9286-4775

References

Ackers, L. (2008). Internationalisation, mobility and metrics: A new form of indirect discrimination?. Minerva, 46(4), 411-435.

Adomßent, M., & Michelsen, G. (2006). German Academia heading for sustainability? Reflections on policy and practice in teaching, research and institutional innovations. Environmental Education Research, 12(1), 85-99.

Androff, D., Fike, C., & Rorke, J. (2017). Greening social work education: Teaching environmental rights and sustainability in community practice. Journal of Social Work Education, 53(3), 399-413.

Arsenault, J., Talbot, J., Boustani, L., Gonzalès, R., & Manaugh, K. (2019). The environmental footprint of academic and student mobility in a large research-oriented university. Environmental Research Letters, 14(9), 095001.

Arquit, A., Gage, J., & Saner, R. (2011). Levers to enhance TNC contributions to low carbon development–Drivers, determinants and policy implications. CSEND, Diplomacy Dialogue.

Berkowitz, H., & Delacour, H. (2020). Sustainable Academia: Open, Engaged, and Slow Science. M@n@gement, 23(1), 1-3.

Bhambra, G. (n.d.). Decoloniality. Global Social Theory. Accessed 28 October 2020 from https://globalsocialtheory.org/topics/decoloniality/

Brundtland. (1987). Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Burian, I. (2018). It is up in the air. Academic flying of Swedish sustainability academics and a pathway to organisational change. Lund University.

Burke, I. C. (2010). Travel trade-offs for scientists. Science, 330(6010), 1476-1476.

Calder, W., & Clugston, R. M. (2003). International efforts to promote higher education for sustainable development. Planning for Higher Education, 31(3), 30-44.

Caset, F., Boussauw, K., & Storme, T. (2018). Meet & fly: Sustainable transport academics and the elephant in the room. Journal of Transport Geography, 70, 64-67.

Cortese, A. D. (2003). The critical role of higher education in creating a sustainable future. Planning for Higher Education, 31(3), 15-22.

Cotton, D., Bailey, I., Warren, M., & Bissell, S. (2009). Revolutions and second‐best solutions: education for sustainable development in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 34(7), 719-733.

Crumley-Effinger, M., Jules, T., & Shah, S. (forthcoming) Comparative and International Education Research: Considering Sustainable Research Methodologies. In A. Wiseman (Ed.). Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2020. Emerald Publishing.

Davies, J. C., & Dunk, R. M. (2016). Flying along the supply chain: accounting for emissions from student air travel in the higher education sector. Carbon Management, 6.

de Wit, H., & Altbach, P. (2020). Time to cut international education's carbon footprint. University World News. Retrieved February 23, 2020, from https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20200108084344396

EAUC. (n.d.). Questions & answers: Your concerns, your answers. Retrieved 23 June 2020 from https://www.sustainabilityexchange.ac.uk/files/eauc-scotland_questions__answers_tool_version_2.pdf

EPA. (n.d.a). Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Retrieved February 28, 2020 from https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/sources-greenhouse-gas-emissions

EPA. (n.d.b). Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data. February 28, 2020 retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data

Fien, J., & Tilbury, D. (2002). The global challenge of sustainability. In D. Tilbury, R. Stevenson, J. Fien, & D. Schreuder (Eds.). Education and sustainability: Responding to the global challenge, pp. 1-12. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Findler, F., Schönherr, N., Lozano, R., & Stacherl, B. (2019). Assessing the impacts of higher education institutions on sustainable development—an analysis of tools and indicators. Sustainability, 11(1), 59.

Fox, H. E., Kareiva, P., Silliman, B., Hitt, J., Lytle, D. A., Halpern, B. S., Hawkes, C. V., Lawler, J., Neel, M., Olden, J. D., & Schlaepfer, M. A., Smith, K., & Tallis, H. (2009). Why do we fly? Ecologists' sins of emission. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 7(6), 294-296.

Glover, A., Strengers, Y., & Lewis, T. (2017). The unsustainability of academic aeromobility in Australian universities. Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 13(1), 1-12.

Gurung, H. B. (2002). Nepal. Ecotourism, sustainable development and environmental education: A case study of ACAP. In D. Tilbury, R. Stevenson, J. Fien, & D. Schreuder (Eds.). Education and sustainability: Responding to the global challenge, pp. 55-63. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Handelman, H. (2017). Challenges of the developing world. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. 978-1-4422-5688-0.

Hallegatte, S., Bangalore, M., Bonzanigo, L., Fay, M., Kane, T., Narloch, U., ... & Vogt-Schilb, A. (2015). Shock waves: managing the impacts of climate change on poverty. The World Bank.

Haraway, D. J. (2016). Staying with the trouble: Making kin in the Chthulucene. Duke University Press.

Higham, J., & Font, X. (2020). Decarbonising academia: confronting our climate hypocrisy. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 28(1), 1-9.

Hoffman, D. M. (2008). Changing academic mobility patterns and international migration: What will academic mobility mean in the 21st century? Journal of studies in international education, 13(3), 347-364.

Hopkins, C., & McKeown, R. (2002). Education for sustainable development: An international perspective. In D. Tilbury, R. Stevenson, J. Fien, & D. Schreuder (Eds.). Education and sustainability: Responding to the global challenge, pp. 13-24. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Jickling, B. (1992). Why I don't want my children to be educated for sustainable development. The Journal of Environmental Education, 23(4), 5-8.

Jickling, B. (1994). Studying sustainable development: Problems and possibilities. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'éducation, 231-240.

Kagawa, F. (2005). Emergency education: A critical review of the field. Comparative Education, 41(4), 487-503.

Kopnina, H. (2012). Education for sustainable development (ESD): the turn away from ‘environment’ in environmental education?. Environmental Education Research, 18(5), 699-717.

Kuh, K. F. (2008). Using Local Knowledge to Shrink the Individual Carbon Footprint. Hofstra L. Rev., 37, 923.

Le Quéré, C., Capstick, S., Corner, A., Cutting, D., Johnson, M., Minns, A., ... & Wood, R. (2015). Towards a culture of low-carbon research for the 21 st Century. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Working Paper, 161.

Lozano, R, Ceulemans, K, Alonso-Almeida, M, Huisingh, D, Lozano, F. J, Waas, T, Lambrechts, W, Lukman, R, & Hugé, J. (2015). A review of commitment and implementation of sustainable development in higher education: results from a worldwide survey. Journal of Cleaner Production, 108, 1–18.

Maniates, M. F. (2001). Individualization: Plant a tree, buy a bike, save the world?. Global Environmental Politics, 1(3), 31-52.

Mignolo, W., & Walsh, C. (2018). On decoloniality: Concepts, analytics, praxis. Duke University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctv11g9616

Nevins, J. (2014). Academic jet-setting in a time of climate destabilization: Ecological privilege and professional geographic travel. The Professional Geographer, 66(2), 298-310.

Norgaard, K. M. (2012). Climate denial and the construction of innocence: Reproducing transnational environmental privilege in the face of climate change. Race, Gender & Class, 80-103.

Pashby, K., & Andreotti, V.D.O. (2016). Ethical internationalisation in higher education: Interfaces with international development and sustainability. Environmental Education Research, 22(6), 771-787.

Rappleye, J., & Komatsu, H. (2020). Towards (comparative) educational research for a finite future. Comparative Education, 1-28.

Reay, D. S. (2003). Virtual solution to carbon cost of conferences. Nature, 424(6946), 251-251.

Rhoades, G., Kiyama, J. M., McCormick, R., & Quiroz, M. (2008). Local cosmopolitans and cosmopolitan locals: New models of professionals in the academy. The Review of Higher Education, 31(2), 209-235.

Rickards, L., & Watson, J. E. (2020). Research is not immune to climate change. Nature Climate Change, 10(3), 180-183.

Sauvé, L. (1996). Environmental education and sustainable development: A further appraisal. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 1, 7-34.

Shields, R. (2019). The sustainability of international higher education: Student mobility and global climate change. Journal of Cleaner Production, 217, 594-602.

Shotwell, A. (2016). Against purity: Living ethically in compromised times. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Sibbel, A. (2009). Pathways towards sustainability through higher education. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education.

Stein, S. (2019). The ethical and ecological limits of sustainability: A decolonial approach to climate change in higher education. Australian Journal of Environmental Education, 35(3), 198-212.

Stiles, K. (2002). Zimbabwe. Education to sustain the Zambezi. In D. Tilbury, R. Stevenson, J. Fien, & D. Schreuder (Eds.). Education and sustainability: Responding to the global challenge, pp. 125-132. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

UNCED. (1992). United Nations Conference on Environment & Development Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992. Accessed 28 July 2020 from https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf

United Nations. (n.d.). The 17 goals. Accessed 4 September 2020 from https://sdgs.un.org/goals

Vare, P., & Scott, W. (2007). Learning for a change: Exploring the relationship between education and sustainable development. Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 1(2), 191-198.

Vogt, M., & Weber, C. (2020). The Role of Universities in a Sustainable Society. Why Value-Free Research is Neither Possible nor Desirable. Sustainability, 12(7), 2811. doi:10.3390/su12072811

Wright, T. (2004). The evolution of environmental sustainability declarations in higher education. In A. Wals, P. Corcoran (Eds.). Higher education and the challenge of sustainability: Problematics, promise, and practice, pp. 7-19. Dordecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Downloads

Published

2021-05-21

How to Cite

Crumley-Effinger, M., & Torres-Olave, B. (2021). Kicking the Habit: Rethinking Academic Hypermobility in the Anthropocene. Journal of International Students, 11(S1), 86–107. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v11iS1.3845