Stereotypes from the Inside

Chinese International Students’ Experiences with Peers’ Outgroup Favoritism

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v12i1.3174

Keywords:

Intergroup communication, stereotype, favoritism, Chinese international students

Abstract

Communication scholars often examine immigrants’ ingroup favoritism to study their intergroup/intercultural communication. Less is known about how some immigrants exhibit outgroup favoritism for the host culture and how outgroup favoritism relates to their ingroup communication. Drawn upon literatures on outgroup favoritism, this study understands international/intercultural communication in a global system where some immigrants favor the hosting outgroup. The researcher investigates how Chinese international students experience their peers’ performance of outgroup favoritism 崇洋媚外 in the U.S. Through in-depth interviews (n = 15), this study identified how outgroup favoritism enacts negative ingroup stereotyping and ingroup distancing. Students with outgroup favoritism strategically negotiate for less ingroup membership and more outgroup affiliation, creating mutual exclusion among ingroup members. Discussion focuses on Chinese international students’ communication dilemma with outgroup-favoring ingroup members

References

Becker, J. C., & Wright, S. C. (2011). Yet another dark side of chivalry: Benevolent sexism undermines and hostile sexism motivates collective action for social change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(1), 62-77. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022615

Berger, C. R. (1973). Task performance and attributional communication as determinants of interpersonal attraction. Speech Monographs, 40(4), 280-286. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637757309375805

Bhochhibhoya, A., Dong, Y., & Branscum, P. (2017). Sources of social support among international college students in the United States. Journal of International Students, 7(3), 671-686. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.570032

Blanton, H., Christie, C., & Dye, M. (2002). Social identity versus reference frame comparisons: The moderating role of stereotype endorsement. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38(3), 253-267. https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2001.1510

Breines, J. G., & Ayduk, O. (2015). Rejection sensitivity and vulnerability to self-directed hostile cognitions following rejection. Journal of Personality, 83(1), 1-13 https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12077

Brown, R. J. (1986). Social Psychology. New York, NY: The Free Press.

Burkley, M., & Blanton, H. (2008). Endorsing a negative in-group stereotype as a self-protective strategy: Sacrificing the group to save the self. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(1), 37-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2007.01.008

Calogero, R. M., & Jost, J. T. (2011). Self-subjugation among women: Exposure to sexist ideology, self-objectification, and the protective function of the need to avoid closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(2), 211-228. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021864

Charmaz, K. (2014). Constructing grounded theory. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Collins, R. L. (1996). For better or worse: The impact of upward social comparison on self-evaluations. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 51–69. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.119.1.51

Dasgupta, N. (2004). Implicit ingroup favoritism, outgroup favoritism, and their behavioral manifestations. Social Justice Research, 17(2), 143-169. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:SORE.0000027407.70241.15

Gallois, C., Ogay, T., & Giles, H. (2015). Communication accommodation theory. In W. B. Gudykunst (Ed.) Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 121-148). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hofstede, G. (2001), Cultural consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sate.

Ji, Y. (2019). Acculturating the traditional Chinese medicine: A culture-centered study of Chinese international students’ idealization of medical integration during sojourns. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 48(4), 370-383. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475759.2019.1635039

Ji, Y., & Bates, B. R. (2019). Testing “racial fetish” in health prevention messages: Chinese evaluation of ethnicity-(in) congruent messages as a function of out-group favoritism. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, https://doi.org/10.1080/17513057.2019.1650951

Ji, Y., & Bates, B. R. (2020). Measuring intercultural/international outgroup favoritism: comparing two measures of cultural cringe. Asian Journal of Communication, 30(2), 141-154. https://doi.org/10.1080/01292986.2020.1738511

Jost, J. T. (2019). A quarter century of system justification theory: Questions, answers, criticisms, and societal applications. British Journal of Social Psychology, 58(2), 263-314. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12297

Jost, J. T., & Banaji, M. R. (1994). The role of stereotyping in system‐justification and the production of false consciousness. British Journal of Social Psychology, 33(1), 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1994.tb01008.x

Jost, J. T., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (2004). A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo. Political Psychology, 25, 881–919. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2004.00402.x

Jost, J. T., & Kay, A. C. (2005). Exposure to benevolent sexism and complementary gender stereotypes: Consequences for specific and diffuse forms of system justification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 498–509. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.88.3.498

Kawai, Y. (2005). Stereotyping Asian Americans: The dialectic of the model minority and the yellow peril. The Howard Journal of Communications, 16(2), 109-130. https://doi.org/10.1080/10646170590948974

Kelley, H. H. (1973). The process of causal attribution. American Psychologist, 28, 107–128. doi:10.1037/h0034225

Laurin, K., Kay, A. C., & Shepherd, S. (2011). Self-stereotyping as a route to system justification. Social Cognition, 29(3), 360-375. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2011.29.3.360

Lindlof, T. R., & Taylor, B. C. (2017). Qualitative communication research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.

Martinko, M. (2018). Attribution theory: An organizational perspective. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315137926

Pacilli, M. G., Taurino, A., Jost, J. T., & van der Toorn, J. (2011). System justification, right-wing conservatism, and internalized homophobia: Gay and lesbian attitudes toward same-sex parenting in Italy. Sex Roles, 65, 580. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-011-9969-5

Rankin, L. E., Jost, J. T., & Wakslak, C. J. (2009). System justification and the meaning of life: Are the existential benefits of ideology distributed unequally across racial groups? Social Justice Research, 22(2-3), 312-333. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11211-009-0100-9

Ruble, R. A., & Zhang, Y. B. (2013). Stereotypes of Chinese international students held by Americans. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37(2), 202-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2012.12.004

Rudman, L. A., Moss-Racusin, C. A., Phelan, J. E., & Nauts, S. (2012). Status incongruity and backlash effects: Defending the gender hierarchy motivates prejudice against female leaders. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(1), 165-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2011.10.008

Sharlin, S. A., & Moin, V. (2001). New immigrants’ perceptions of family life in origin and host cultures: In-group and out-group favoritism effect. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 32(3), 405-418. https://doi.org/10.3138/jcfs.32.3.405

Spicer, C. V. (2000). The Effect of Self-Stereotyping and Stereotype Threat on Intellectual Performance, Unpublished dissertation. University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., & Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 379-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(02)80009-0

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research. Sage publications.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.

Yan, K. (2017). Chinese international students' stressors and coping strategies in the United States. Singapore: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-3347-6

Zhang, Q. (2019). Mediators in the relationships of intergroup stereotypes and ingroup identity with intergroup behaviors. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 48(2), 171-184. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475759.2019.1575893

Published

2021-07-09

How to Cite

Ji, Y. (2021). Stereotypes from the Inside: Chinese International Students’ Experiences with Peers’ Outgroup Favoritism. Journal of International Students, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v12i1.3174

Issue

Section

Research Articles