Egyptian Students’ Disinterest in Overseas Academic Mobility

A Behavioral Approach Based on the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation Model

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v11i2.2081

Keywords:

behavioral change wheel, behavioral mobility economics, capability-opportunity-motivation behavior model, Egypt, evidence-based policy

Abstract

This study uses the capability-opportunity-motivation behavior framework as a theoretical basis and partial least squares structural equation modeling as an empirical research method to identify factors that influence the interest in studying abroad. We rely on primary microdata collected through a self-administered questionnaire among Egyptian students and apply a structural equation model to estimate the different relationships. Our analysis yielded interesting results: (a) 58% of our respondents were somehow interested in studying abroad; (b) physical capability, physical opportunity, and automatic motivation were the main predictors of interest in overseas academic mobility; and (c) a three-pillar policy program based on guidelines, communication and marketing, and regulation could be implemented to promote the interest of young Egyptians in studying abroad.

Author Biography

Hélène Syed Zwick, ESLSCA University, Egypt

HELENE SYED ZWICK, PhD, is executive director in the ESLSCA Research Center of Excellence (ERCE) at ESLSCA University Egypt. Her major research interests lie in the area of human mobility, return and reintegration, migrant decision-making

References

Alexanders, K. E., Brijnath, B., & Mazza, D. (2014). Barriers and enablers to delivery of the Healthy Kids Check: An analysis informed by the theoretical domains framework and COM-B model. Implementation Science, 9(1), Article 60. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-9-60

Arango, J. (2000). Explaining migration: A critical review. International Social Science Journal, 52(165), 283–296.

Barker, F., Atkins, L., & de Lusignan, S. (2016). Applying the COM-B behaviour model and behaviour change wheel to develop an intervention to improve hearing-aid use in adult auditory rehabilitation. International Journal of Audiology, 55(3), S90–S98. https://doi.org/10.3109/14992027.2015.1120894

Beck, U., & Beck-Gernsheim, E. (2002). Individualization. SAGE.

Beerkens, M., Souto-Otero, M., de Wit, H., & Huisman, J. (2016). Similar students and different countries? An analysis of the barriers and drivers for Erasmus participation in seven countries. Journal of Studies in International Education, 20(2), 184–204. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315315595703

Bettman, J. R. (1979). An information processing view or consumer choice. Addison-Wesley.

Bollen, K. A., & Pearl, J. (2013). Eight myths about causality and structural equation modeling. In S. L. Morgan (Ed.), Handbook of causal analysis for social research (pp. 301–328). Springer.

Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook for theory and research in the sociology of education (pp. 241–258). Greenwood Press.

Breines, M. R., Raghuram, P., & Gunter, A. (2019). Infrastructures of immobility: Enabling international distance education students in Africa to not move. Mobilities, 14(4), 484–499. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450101.2019.1618565

British Council. (2017). Broadening horizons 2017: Addressing the needs of a new generation. https://www.britishcouncil.org/education/he-science/knowledge-centre/student-mobility/broadening-horizons-2017-addressing-needs-new

Brooks, R., & Waters, J. (2011). Student mobilities, migration and the internationalization of higher education. Palgrave Macmillan.

Cairney, P. (2016). The politics of evidence-based policy making. Springer.

Caplan, N. (1979). The two-communities theory and knowledge utilization. American Behavioral Scientist, 22, 459–470. https://doi.org/10.1177/000276427902200308

Carling, J. (2002). Migration in the age of involuntary immobility: Theoretical reflections and Cape Verdean experiences. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28(1), 5–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830120103912

Chen, L. H. (2007). East-Asian students’ choice of Canadian graduate schools. International Journal of Education Advancement, 7(4), 271–306. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.ijea.2150071

Collins, F. L., Ho, K. C., Ishikawa, M., & Ma, A. H. (2017). International student mobility and after-study lives: The portability and prospects of overseas education in Asia. Population, Space and Place, 23, Article e2029. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.2029

Cresswell, T. (2006). On the move. Routledge.

Cummings, W. K. (1984). Going overseas for higher education: The Asian experience. In E. G. Barber, P. G. Altbach, & R. G. Myers Eds.), Bridges to knowledge: Foreign students in comparative perspective (pp. 130–146). University of Chicago Press.

Czaika, M. (2015). Migration and economic prospects. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41(1), 58–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2014.924848

Findlay, A. M., King, R., & Stam, A. (2017). Producing international student migration: An exploration of the role of marketization in shaping international study opportunities. In M. van Riemsdijk & Q. Wang (Eds.), Rethinking international skilled migration (pp. 19–35). Routledge.

Goodwin, C. D., & Nacht, M. (1988). Abroad and beyond: Patterns in American overseas education. Cambridge University Press.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). SAGE.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2012). Partial least squares: The better approach to structural equation modeling? Long Range Planning, 45(5–6), 312–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2012.09.011

Howes, S., Betteridge, A., Sause, L., & Ugyel, L. (2018). Evidence-based policy making in the tropics: Are developing countries different? Development Policy Centre Discussion Paper No. 59. https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3009196

Hung, K., & Petrick, J. F. (2012). Testing the effects of congruity, travel constraints, and self-efficacy on travel intentions: An alternative decision-making model. Tourism Management, 33(4), 855–867. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.09.007

King, R., & Sondhi, G. (2018). International student migration: A comparison of UK and Indian students’ motivations for studying abroad. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 16(2), 176–191. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767724.2017.1405244

Koikkalainen, S., & Kyle, D. (2016). Imagining mobility: The prospective cognition question in migration research. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 42(5), 759–776. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2015.1111133

Kritz, M. M. (2016). Why do countries differ in their rates of outbound student mobility? Journal of Studies in International Education, 202, 99–117. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315315598104

Kubota, R. (2016). The social imaginary of study abroad: Complexities and contradictions. The Language Learning Journal, 44(3), 347–357. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2016.1198098

Lai, H. M., Hsiao, Y. L., & Hsieh, P. J. (2018). The role of motivation, ability, and opportunity in university teachers’ continuance use intention for flipped teaching. Computers and Education, 124, 34–50. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2018.05.013

Lee, K. H., & Tan, J. P. (1984). The international flow of third level lesser developed country students to developed countries: Determinants and implications. Higher Education, 13, 687–707. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00137020

Lo, W. Y. (2019). Beyond competition: A comparative review of conceptual approaches to international student mobility. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 17(3), 261–273. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767724.2018.1525283

Lowell, B. L., & Khadka, P. (2011). Trends in foreign-student admissions to the U.S. In B. R. Chiswick (Ed.), High-skilled immigration in a global labor market (pp. 83–110). American Enterprise Institute.

McDonald, R. P. (1996). Path analysis with composite variables. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 31(2), 239–270. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr3102_5

Michie, S., Hyder, N., Walia, A., & West, R. (2011). Development of a taxonomy of behaviour change techniques used in individual behavioural support for smoking cessation, Addictive Behaviours, 36(4), 315–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.11.016

Michie, S., & Prestwich, A. (2010). Are interventions theory-based? Development of a theory coding scheme. Health Psychology, 29(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016939

Michie, S., Van Stralen, M. M., & West, R. (2011). The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterizing and designing behaviour change interventions. Implementation Science, 6(1), Article 42. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-6-42

Mondain, N., & Diagne, A. (2013). Discerning the reality of ‘those left behind’ in contemporary migration processes in Sub-Saharan Africa: Some theoretical reflections in the light of data from Senegal. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 345, 503–516. https://doi.org/10.1080/07256868.2013.827831

Murphy-Lejeune, E. (2002). Student mobility and narrative in Europe: The new strangers. Routledge.

Netz, N. (2015). What deters students from studying abroad? Evidence from four European countries and its implications for higher education policy. Higher Education Policy, 28(2), 151–174. https://doi.org/10.1057/hep.2013.37

Newell, S. (2012). The modernity bluff: Crime, consumption, and citizenship in Côte d’Ivoire. University of Chicago Press.

Nilsson, P. A., & Ripmeester, N. (2016). International student expectations: Career, opportunities and employability. Journal of International Students, 6(2), 614–631.

Nitzl, C. (2016). The use of partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) in management accounting research: Directions for future theory development. Journal of Accounting Literature, 39, 19–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acclit.2016.09.003

Ojeda, L., Flores, L. Y., & Navarro, R. L. (2011). Social cognitive predictors of Mexican American college students’ academic and life satisfaction. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 61–71. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021687

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2017). Debate the issues: Complexity and policy making. OECD Insights. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264271531-en

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2019). Education at a glance 2019: OECD indicators. https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en

Parkhurst, J. (2017). The politics of evidence: From evidence-based policy to the good governance of evidence. Routledge.

Perkins, R., & Neumayer, E. (2014). Geographies of educational mobilities: Exploring the uneven flows of international students. The Geographical Journal, 180(3), 246–259. https://doi.org/10.1111/geoj.12045

Rosenzweig, M. R. (2007). Higher education and international migration in Asia: Brain circulation [Paper presentation]. Regional Bank Conference on Development Economics, Beijing.

Schewel, K. (2015). Understanding the aspiration to stay. Oxford University International Migration Institute Working Papers No. 107.

Schewel, K. (2019). Understanding immobility: Moving beyond the mobility bias in migration studies. International Migration Review, 54(2), 328–355. https://doi.org/10.1177/0197918319831952

Soong, H., Stahl, G., & Shan, H. (2017). Transnational mobility through education: a Bourdieusian insight on life as middle transnationals in Australia and Canada. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 16(2), 241–253. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767724.2017.1396886

Souto-Otero, M., Huisman, J., Beerkens, M., & de Wit, H. (2013). Barriers to international student mobility: Evidence from the ERASMUS program. Educational Researcher, 42, 70–77.

Stoker, G., & Evans, M. (2016). Evidence-based policy making in the social sciences: Methods that matter. Policy Press.

Syed Zwick, H. (2020a). Le modèle de motivation–opportunité–capacité: Application à la mobilité étudiante régionale en Asie centrale [Applying the motivation-opportunity-ability model to regional student mobility in Central Asia]. Journal of International Mobility: Moving for Education, Training and Research, 7, 45–68.

Syed Zwick, H. (2020b). Narrative analysis of Syrians, South Sudanese and Libyans transiting in Egypt: A motivation-opportunity-ability approach. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2020.1720630

Syed Zwick, H., & Syed S. A. S. (2015). Student disinterest for mobility: Microeconomic determinants. Current Politics and Economics of Europe, 26(1), 93–108.

Triandis, H. C. (1977). Interpersonal behavior. Brooks/Cole.

UNESCO Institute for Stastistics. (2019). UNESCO Database on education. Retrieved Month 01, 2020, from http://data.uis.unesco.org/

Ullman, J. B. (2001). Structural equation modelling. In B. G. Tabachnick & L. S. Fidell (Eds,), Using multivariate statistics (pp. 653–771). Allyn & Bacon.

Urry, J. (2007). Mobilities. Polity.

Van der Velde, M., & van Naerssen, T. (2015). The threshold approach revisited. In M. Van der Velde & T. van Naerssen (Eds.), Mobility and migration choices: Thresholds to crossing borders (pp. 267–275). Ashgate.

Waters, J. (2008). Education, migration, and cultural capital in the Chinese diaspora: Transnational students between Hong Kong and Canada. Cambria Press.

Downloads

Published

2021-03-15

How to Cite

Syed Zwick, H. (2021). Egyptian Students’ Disinterest in Overseas Academic Mobility: A Behavioral Approach Based on the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation Model. Journal of International Students, 11(2), 377–396. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v11i2.2081

Issue

Section

Research Articles