Proactive Personality and Cross-Cultural Adjustment

The Mediating Role of Adjustment Self-Efficacy




adjustment self-efficacy, cross-cultural adjustment, proactive personality


Combining proactive literature, the social learning/cognitive theory, and cross-cultural adjustment literature, we examined the sojourners’ experience from a positive perspective. Using a three-wave prospective design and a sample of 135 international students, we found that proactive personality was positively related to adjustment self-efficacy, which in turn positively related to academic and social adjustment. Meanwhile, adjustment self-efficacy mediated the link between proactive personality and adjustment. Implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.


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Author Biographies

Jing Hua, Troy University, USA

JING HUA, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Management and HR at Troy University. Her major research interests lie in the area of cross-cultural adjustment and positive psychology.

Guilin Zhang, Troy University, USA

GUILIN ZHANG, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Management and HR at Troy University. Her major research interests lie in the area of leadership, organizational justice, and employee proactivity

Charles Coco, Troy University, USA

CHARLES COCO, DBA, is a lecturer in the Department of Management and Human Resource MGT in the Sorrell College of Business at Troy University.  His major research interests are in the areas of emotional intelligence, organizational behavior, leadership, and management

Teng Zhao, Auburn University, USA

TENG ZHAO is a doctoral student in the Department of Psychological Sciences at Auburn University. Her major research interests lie in the area of newcomer orientation and socialization, faking in personnel selection, cross-cultural adjustment, and training

Ning Hou, St. Cloud State University, USA

NING HOU, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Management and Entrepreneurship at St. Cloud State University.  Her major research interests lie in the area of newcomer socialization and orientation and dyadic data analysis


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How to Cite

Hua, J., Zhang, G., Coco, C., Zhao, T., & Hou, N. (2020). Proactive Personality and Cross-Cultural Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Adjustment Self-Efficacy. Journal of International Students, 10(4), 817–835.



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