The Impact of Intercultural Exchange on Secondary School Exchange Students and Their Host Families

Keywords: globalization, host families, intercultural exchange, international students, secondary school education

Abstract

The last decade has seen a significant increase of international student mobility and a growing popularity of secondary school exchange programs in the United States and around the world. Drawing upon culture learning theory, the purpose of this study is to understand the impacts, challenges, and rewards of intercultural exchange on secondary school exchange students and their host families. I performed a case study of in-depth interviews with six students who were placed in Hawai’i for an academic year on the Kennedy-Lugar Youth Exchange and Future Leaders Exchange merit-based scholarships, as well as interviews with their volunteer host families. Findings show that intercultural exchange occurs as a two-way process. Both students and host families reap the benefits of intercultural exchange by way of active interaction and culture sharing that is enhanced by a positive student–host relationship. 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Manca Sustarsic, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA

MANCA SUSTARSIC, MA, is a PhD Candidate in the Educational Foundations Department at the University of Hawai’i at Manoa. Her major research interests lie in the area of international student mobility and secondary school exchange programs.

References

American Councils for International Education. (n.d.-a). FLEX (Formerly A-SMYLE) application information. Retrieved March 21, 2019 from http://ac-see.org/new/flex-program/#sixth

American Councils for International Education. (n.d.-b). YES in Southeast Europe application information. Retrieved March 21, 2019 from http://ac-see.org/new/yes-program/

Arksey, H., & Knight, P. T. (1999). Interviewing for social scientists: An introductory resource with examples. SAGE.

Bachner, D., & Zeutschel, U. (2009). Long-term effects of international educational youth exchange. Intercultural Education, 20(1–2), 45–58.

Bellamy, C., & Weinberg, A. (2008). Educational and cultural exchanges to restore America’s image. The Washington Quarterly, 31(3), 55–68.

Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55(3), 303–332.

Brown, L. (2008). The incidence of study-related stress in international students in the initial stage of the international sojourn. Journal of Studies in International Education, 12(1), 5–28.

Brown, L., & Graham, I. (2009). The discovery of the self through the academic sojourn. Existential Analysis, 20(1), 79–93.

Brown, L., & Holloway, I. (2008). The initial stage of the international sojourn: excitement or culture shock? British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 36(1), 33–49.

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. (n.d.). What is hosting? Retrieved March 3, 2019 from https://eca.state.gov/programs-initiatives/host-high-school-student

Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. (2009). Evaluation of the youth exchange & study program. Final report, August 2009. InterMedia.

Chamove, A. S., & Soeterik, S. (2006). Grief in returning sojourners. Journal of Social Sciences, 13(3), 215–220.

Chang, Y. Y. (2010). Are you my guest or my child? Mothers’ uncertainties in interacting with their returnee children in China. Chinese Journal of Communication, 3(2), 167–184.

Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among the five approaches (4th ed.). SAGE.

Enloe, W., & Lewin, P. (1987). Issues of integration abroad and readjustment to Japan of Japanese returnees. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 11(3), 223–248.

Farrugia, C. A. (2014). Charting new pathways to higher education: International secondary students in the United States. IIE Center for Academic Mobility Research Institute of International Education.

Grove, C. L., & Hansel, B. (1983). Updated findings of the AFS impact study. AFS International/Intercultural Programs.

Hansel, B. (2008a). AFS long term impact study. Report 2: Looking at intercultural sensitivity, anxiety, and experience with other cultures. AFS International.

Hansel, B. (2008b). AFS long term impact study. Report 1: 20 to 25 years after the exchange experience, AFS alumni are compared with their peers. AFS International.

Harari, M. (1992). The internationalization of curriculum. In C. B. Klasek, B. J. Garavalia, & K. J. Kellerman (Eds.), Bridges to the future: Strategies for internationalizing higher education. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.

Hoersting, R. C., & Jenkins, S. R. (2011). No place to call home: Cultural homelessness, self-esteem and cross-cultural identities. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(2011), 17–30.

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organisations: Software of the mind. Harper Collins.

Institute of International Education. (2017). Globally mobile youth. IIE Center for Academic Mobility Research and Impact. https://p.widencdn.net/xguzsn/Globally-Mobile-Youth-Trends-in-International-Secondary-Students-in-the-United-States-2013-201

Izadi, F. (2016). US public diplomacy: A theoretical treatise. The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society, 46(1), 13–21.

Jang, D., & Kim, D.Y. (2010). The influence of host cultures on the role of personality in the acculturation of exchange students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34(4), 363–367.

Kim, Y. Y. (2001). Becoming intercultural: An integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation. SAGE.

Knight, J. (2017). Global: Moving from soft power to knowledge diplomacy. In G. Mihut, P. G. Altbach, & H. Wit (Eds.), Understanding higher education internationalization. Global perspectives on higher education. Sense Publishers.

Knight, S. M., & Schmidt‐Rinehart, B. C. (2010). Exploring conditions to enhance student/host family interaction abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 43(1), 64–71.

Lyttle, A. D., Barker, G. G., & Cornwell, T. L. (2011). Adept through adaptation: Third culture individuals’ interpersonal sensitivity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(2011), 686–694.

Marklein, M. B. (2014, July 8). International students flock to U.S. high schools. USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/07/08/high-school-foreign-international-students/12296741/

Moore, A. M., & Barker, G. G. (2012). Confused or multicultural: Third culture individuals’ cultural identity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(2012), 553–562.

National Museum of American Diplomacy. (2019). Discover diplomacy. Retrieved March 21, 2019 from https://www.state.gov/discoverdiplomacy

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2014). Education at a glance. https://www.oecd.org/edu/Education-at-a-Glance- 2014.pdf

Rodriguez, S., & Chornet-Roses, D. (2014). How ‘family’ is your host family?: An examination of student–host relationships during study abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 39, 164–174.

Rohmann, A., Florack, A., Samochowiec, J., & Simonett, N. (2014). “I’m not sure how she will react”: Predictability moderates the influence of positive contact experiences on intentions to interact with a host community member. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 39(1), 103–109.

Schmidt‐Rinehart, B., & Knight, S. (2004). The homestay component of study abroad: Three perspectives. Foreign Language Annals, 37(2), 254–262.

Soeterik, S. M. (1998). Re-entry adjustment of high school exchange students to New Zealand: Cross-cultural transition within a loss and grief framework [Unpublished master’s dissertation]. Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Stake, R. E. (2005). Qualitative case studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 443–466). SAGE.

Sturges, J. E., & Hanrahan, K. J. (2004). Comparing telephone and face-to-face qualitative interviewing: A research note. Qualitative Research, 4(1), 107–118.

Szkudlarek, B. (2010). Reentry—A review of the literature. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34(2010), 1–21.

Taylor, E., & Merriam, S. (2008). Transformative learning theory. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2008(119), 5–15.

Thomas, A. (2005). Long-term effects of international students exchange programs. In W. Friedlmeier, P. Chakkarath, & B. Schwarz (Eds.), Culture and human development: The importance of crosscultural research for the social science (pp. 303–320). Hove.

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (2018). § Sec. 62.25 Secondary school students. Exchange Visitor Program. https://www.uscis.gov/ilink/docView/22CFR/HTML/22CFR/0-0-0-1/0-0-0-3590/0-0-0-4552.html

Wan, T., Chapman, D., & Biggs D. (1992). Academic stress of international students attending U.S. universities. Research in Higher Education, 33(5), 607–623.

Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2005). The psychology of culture shock. Routledge.

Weichbrodt, M. (2014). Learning mobility: high school exchange programs as a part of international mobility. Children’s Geographies, 12(1), 9–24.

Wilson, A. H. (1993). A cross-national perspective on reentry of high school exchange students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 17(1993), 456–492.

Zhou, Y., Jindal-Snape, D., Topping, K., & Todman, J. (2008). Theoretical models of culture shock and adaptation in international students in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 33(1), 63–75.

Published
2020-11-15
How to Cite
Sustarsic, M. (2020). The Impact of Intercultural Exchange on Secondary School Exchange Students and Their Host Families. Journal of International Students, 10(4). https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v10i4.1042
Section
Research Articles