The Nature of Bullying in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Students’ Experiences in Ghana and Norway
Keywords:bullying, Ghana, higher education, negative behaviors, Norway
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to identify the negative behaviors that constitute bullying in higher education as reported by students, and (b) to explore differences in student experiences in two markedly different national contexts. A sample of 1,189 respondents from two universities in Ghana (n = 751) and two universities in Norway (n = 438) answered the same questionnaire. Approximately 40% of the Ghanaian students and 20% of the Norwegian students responded that they had been bullied. Although less frequently observed than in Ghana, relational forms of bullying (e.g., being excluded) were more prevalent in Norway compared to other behaviors. In contrast, direct and verbal forms of bullying, such as name-calling and being taunted, were most common in Ghana. The findings provide insights into cultural and national variations with respect to negative social behaviors related to bullying in the context of higher education.
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