The Relationships Between State Community College Governance Centralization and Local Appropriations

Authors

  • Lindsey Hammond University of Georgia
  • Sean Baser Institute of Higher Education - University of Georgia
  • Alexander Cassell Pennsylvania State University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.32674/hepe.v6i1.1734

Keywords:

Community Colleges, Governance, Governing Boards, Finance, Local Appropriations, Educational Policy

Abstract

This two-way, fixed effects analysis examines the relationship between local appropriations and community college state governance structures while examining governance’s moderating impact on state-level factors. We find that any type of state-level organization for community colleges does not impact local appropriations, and that in states with no formal coordinating authority, local appropriations are likely to be higher. Further, the absence of a state-level board, even one that includes four-year, primary, or secondary education, moderates the relationship between unemployment and appropriations. This relationship suggests that in states without a state-level board for community colleges, local governments invest in and leverage their community colleges in times of economic decline. 

References

Allison, P. D. (2009). Fixed effects regression models (Vol. 160). Thousand Oaks,

CA: SAGE Publications.

American Association of Community College, & Association of Community

College Trustees. (2019). Joint legislative agenda for the 116th congress: Advancing American community colleges. Retrieved from:

https://www.aacc.nche.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/LegAgenda18.pdf

Angrist, J. D., & Pischke, J.-S. (2009). Mostly harmless econometrics: An

empiricist's companion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Archibald, R. B., & Feldman, D. H. (2006). State higher education spending and the

tax revolt. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(4), 618-644.

Bailey, T. W., & Morest, V. S. (2006). Defending the community college equity

agenda. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Chmelarova, V. (2007). The hausman test, and some alternatives,

withheteroskedastic data. (Doctoral dissertation), Retrieved from

https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1935&context=grad

school_dissertations

Cohen, A. M., Brawer, F. B., & Kisker, C. B. (2013). The American community

college. San Fransisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Delaney, J. A., & Doyle, W. R. (2011). State spending on higher education: Testing

the balance wheel over time. Journal of Education Finance, 36(4), 343-368.

Dougherty, K. J. (1994). The contradictory college : The conflicting origins,

impacts, and futures of the community college. Albany, NY: State University

of New York Press.

Doyle, W. R. (2007). The political economy of redistribution through higher

education subsidies. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of

theory and research (pp. 335-409). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Fletcher, J. A., & Friedel, J. N. (2017). Typology of state-level community college

governance structures. Community College Journal of Research and Practice,

(4-5), 311-322. doi:10.1080/10668926.2016.1251355

Fletcher, J. A., & Friedel, J. N. (2018). Interrelationships between funding and state

community college governance systems. Journal of Applied Research in the

Community College, 25(1), 1-15.

Fonte, R. W. (1993). The impact of state financing and regulation on the local

orientation of community colleges. Community College Review, 21(1), 4-14.

doi:10.1177/009155219302100102

Friedel, J. N., Killacky, J., Miller, E., & Katsinas, S. G. (2014). Fifty state systems

of community colleges: Mission, governance, funding, and accountability

(Fourth ed.). Johnson City, TN: Overmountain Press.

Garrett, R. L. (1992). Degree of centralization of governance of state community

college systems in the United States, 1990. Community College Review, 20(1),

-13. doi:10.1177/009155219202000102

Garrett, R. L. (1993). A profile of state community college system characteristics

and their relationship to degrees of centralization. Community College Review,

(5), 6-15. doi:10.1177/009155219302000502

Glenny, L. A. (1985). State coordination of higher education: The modern concept.

Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED270070.pdf

Hearn, J. C., & Griswold, C. P. (1994). State-level centralization and policy

innovation in US postsecondary education. Educational Evaluation and Policy

Analysis, 16(2), 161-190. doi:10.3102/01623737016002161

Hearn, J. C., & McLendon, M. K. (2012). Governance research: From adolescence

toward maturity. In M. Bastedo (Ed.), The organization of higher education:

Managing colleges for a new era (pp. 45-85). Baltimore, MD: The John

Hopkins University Press.

Hearn, J. C., & Ness, E. C. (2017). The ecology of state-higher education

policymaking in the US. In D. Palfreyman, T. Tapper, & S. Thomas (Eds.),

Towards the private funding of higher education: Ideological and political

struggles (pp. 19-47). London, UK: Routledge.

Hillman, N. W., & Orians, E. L. (2013). Community colleges and labor market

conditions: How does enrollment demand change relative to local

unemployment rates? Research in Higher Education, 54(7), 765-780.

doi:10.1007/s11162-013-9294-7

Hovey, H. (1999). State spending for higher education in the next decade: The battle

to sustain current support. Retrieved from:

https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED439633.pdf

Ingram, W. G., & Tollefson, T. A. (1996). Local autonomy is alive and well: The

results of a national study on locations of effective decision‐making authority in

state community college systems. Community College Journal of Research and

Practice, 20(2), 133-150. doi:10.1080/1066892960200203

Jaquette, O., & Parra, E. (2016). The problem with the delta cost project database.

Research in Higher Education, 57(5), 630-651. doi:10.1007/s11162-015-9399-2

Katsinas, S. G. (1996). A typology of community college governance structures

[unpublished manuscript].

Keily, T. (2019, November). Postsecondary workforce development policies.

Retrieved from: https://www.ecs.org/wp-content/uploads/Postsecondary-

Workforce-Development-Policies.pdf

Kirst, M. W. (2010). The political and policy dynamics of K-12 education reform

from 1965 to 2010: Implications for changing postsecondary education.

Retrieved from:

https://cepa.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/Evolution%20of%20K-

_9_2_10.pdf

Lowry, R. C. (2001). The effects of state political interests and campus outputs on

public university revenues. Economics of Education Review, 20(2), 105-119.

doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7757(99)00069-2

McGuinness, A. C. (2016). History of state coordination and governance and

alternatives for the future. Retrieved from: http://www.ecs.org/wp-

content/uploads/051616-State-Policy-Leadership-for-the-Future-KL-final2.pdf

McLendon, M. K. (2003). Setting the governmental agenda for state

decentralization of higher education. The Journal of Higher Education, 74, 479-

doi:10.1353/jhe.2003.0038

McLendon, M. K., & Hearn, J. C. (2007). Incorporating political indicators into

comparative state study of higher education policy. In K. M. Shaw & D. E.

Heller (Eds.), State postsecondary education research: New methods to inform

policy and practice (pp. 11-36). Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Mclendon, M. K., & Hearn, J. C. (2009). Viewing recent US governance reform

whole: “Decentralization” in a distinctive context. In J. Huisman (Ed.),

International perspectives on the governance of higher education: Alternative

frameworks for coordination (pp. 161-181). New York, NY: Routledge.

McLendon, M. K., Hearn, J. C., & Mokher, C. G. (2009). Partisans, professionals,

and power: The role of political factors in state higher education funding. The

Journal of Higher Education, 80(6), 686-713.

doi:10.1080/00221546.2009.11779040

Nicholson-Crotty, J., & Meier, K. J. (2003). Politics, structure, and public policy:

The case of higher education. Educational Policy, 17(1), 80-97.

doi:10.1177/0895904802239287

Sponsler, B. A., Pingel, S., & Anderson, L. (2015). Policy trends impacting

community colleges: An ecs perspective. Community College Journal of

Research and Practice, 39(10), 891-895. doi:10.1080/10668926.2015.1033786

Tandberg, D. A. (2010a). Interest groups and governmental institutions: The politics

of state funding of public higher education. Education Policy, 24(5), 735-778.

doi:10.1177/0895904809339163

Tandberg, D. A. (2010b). Politics, interest groups and state funding of public higher

education. Research in Higher Education, 51(5), 416-450. doi:10.1007/s11162-

-9164-5

Tandberg, D. A. (2013). The conditioning role of state higher education governance

structures. The Journal of Higher Education, 84(4), 506-543.

doi:10.1080/00221546.2013.11777300

Tandberg, D. A., & Griffith, C. (2013). State support of higher education: Data,

measures, findings, and directions for future research. In M. B. Paulsen (Ed.),

Higher education: Handbook of theory and research: Volume 28 (pp. 613-685).

Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Tandberg, D. A., & Ness, E. C. (2011). State capital expenditures for higher e

education: "Where the real politics happens". Journal of Education Finance,

(4), 394-423.

Tollefson, T. A. (2009). Community college governance, funding, and

accountability: A century of issues and trends. Community College Journal of

Research and Practice, 33(3-4), 386-402. doi:10.1080/10668920802580481

Tollefson, T. A., & Fountain, B. E. (1992). Forty-nine state systems. Washington,

D.C.: American Association of Community Colleges.

Tollefson, T. A., Garrett, R. L., & Ingram, W. G. (1999). Fifty state systems of

community colleges: Mission, governance, funding and accountaility. Johnson

City, TN: Overmountain Press.

Toutkoushian, R. K., & Hollis, P. (1998). Using panel data to examine legislative

demand for higher education. Education Economics, 6(2), 141-157.

Willett, J. B., & Murnane, R. (2010). Methods matter: Improving causal inference

in educational and social science research. New York, NY: Oxford University

Press.

Downloads

Additional Files

Published

2020-07-02

How to Cite

Hammond, L., Baser, S., & Cassell, A. (2020). The Relationships Between State Community College Governance Centralization and Local Appropriations. Higher Education Politics and Economics, 6(1), 20–38. https://doi.org/10.32674/hepe.v6i1.1734

Issue

Section

Research Papers