The Fourth Industrial Revolution

Shaping a Humane World?


  • Dzulkifli Abdul Razak
  • Abdul Rashid Moten


Chomsky, Fourth Industrial Revolution, Higher education, Ethics and Values, Factory-like model, WEIRD, Moderation, Education with a soul.


The 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR) is a new chapter in human development, enabled by technological advancements commensurate with the First, Second, and Third Industrial Revolutions. The 4IR revolves around automation and data exchange, including cyber-physical systems, the internet of things (IoT), and cloud computing. 4IR, controlled by artificial intelligence and intelligent robots, will supplant people in specific sectors. These technologies reflect the interests and desires of their creators, and these technologies shape the lives of the people. In the words of Professor Avram Noam Chomsky, society reduces education to the requirement of the market. He opined that human beings have no intrinsic, moral, and intellectual nature in educational institutions so created. The emphasis is on the workforce, mind, and machine for the marketplace. Education so imparted is one without a soul leading to weak ethical norms and dangerous trust deficits in communities. Educators must investigate new and creative approaches to educational innovation to upgrade future learning. The need is for education with a soul. Education should develop students’ moral, civic, and creative capacities and prepare them for a livelihood and, more importantly, life. This chapter argues that educators must cultivate “double consciousness” to humanize technology through the bold vision of moderation and middle ground.

How to cite in APA:

Razak, D. A., & Moten, A. R. (2022). The fourth industrial revolution: Shaping a humane world? In E. J. Valeau, R. L. Raby, & U. Gaulee (eds), Shaping a humane world through global higher education: Pre-challenges and post-opportunities during a pandemic (pp. 19-34). STAR Scholars.


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Author Biographies

Dzulkifli Abdul Razak

Dzulkifli Abdul Razak is an emeritus professor, educationist, and scientist. Prof. Razak has been the Rector of the International Islamic University Malaysia since August 1, 2018, and was the Vice-Chancellor of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) from 2000-to 2011. Under his leadership, USM gained the APEX (Accelerated Programme for Excellence) status in 2008. He is the immediate past president of the International Association of Universities (IAU), a UNESCO-affiliated organization in Paris. He was the Convenor of the Regional Centre for Expertise on Education for Sustainable Development based in USM beginning in 2005. He was awarded the prestigious 2017 Gilbert Medal by Universitas 21 in recognition of “his long-term commitment to a sustainable approach to international higher education.” He is a Fellow of the Academy of Sciences Malaysia (FASc), the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS), and the World Academy of Islamic Management (FWAIM). Since 1995, He is a prolific writer and has been a weekly columnist for Malaysian dailies, notably New Straits Times. E-mail:

Abdul Rashid Moten

Abdul Rashid Moten is Emeritus Professor attached to the office of the Rector, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). He earned his BA (Hons) and MA from Dhaka University Bangladesh; MA from Villanova University, Pennsylvania, USA; and Ph.D. from the University of Alberta, Canada. He has been lecturing at many universities for about 45 years. He served the Department of Political Science, IIUM, as a Senior Professor. He was the Director of the IIUM’s post-graduate programme in Singapore. He has authored and edited 32 books and monographs and has contributed over 150 articles in internationally refereed journals and encyclopedias. He served as the editor and guest editors of many journals. E-mail:



How to Cite

Razak, D. A., & Moten, A. R. (2022). The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Shaping a Humane World?. STAR Scholar Books, 19–34. Retrieved from



Shaping a Humane World Through Global Higher Education (Published)