The Challenge of Utilizing Misconduct Data for the Assessment of a Trauma-Informed Intervention


  • Thomas R. Brooks, Ph.D. New Mexico Highlands University
  • Angela M. Proctor, Ph.D., LCDC Trust-Based Counseling & Consulting
  • Mark J. Reid, Ph.D. University of Nebraska at Kearney
  • Natalia Assis, Ph.D. Harris County Department of Education



student misconduct, education, methodology, trauma-informed, behavioral intervention


As trauma-informed interventions increase in popularity across educational settings, important questions pertaining to the empirical effectiveness of these programs need to be addressed (Thomas et al., 2019). The present study serves as preliminary findings of two east Texas public elementary schools who implemented a Trust-Based Relational Intervention® program to meet the needs of students who have experienced trauma. Researchers analyzed six years of student misconduct data collected at both schools prior to implementing the interventions and found that, in line with past research (Hawken et al., 2007; Martella et al., 2010; Putnam et al., 2003), the misconduct data was not deemed appropriate to determine intervention efficacy for research use. The findings are discussed in terms of the implications for researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers.


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Author Biographies

Thomas R. Brooks, Ph.D., New Mexico Highlands University

Dr. Thomas R. Brooks is an assistant professor of psychology at New Mexico Highlands University, where he teaches courses related to learning, cognition, personality, and human sexuality. Thomas’ research interests primarily center on social-cognitive processes of learning across different contexts including education, romantic relationships, and fandom.  

Angela M. Proctor, Ph.D., LCDC, Trust-Based Counseling & Consulting

Dr. Angela Proctor has worked with at-risk children and families for over 20 years. She specializes in trauma-informed approaches in homes, schools, and other organizations that serve people who have experienced adversity.

Mark J. Reid, Ph.D. , University of Nebraska at Kearney

Dean of the College of Education 

For 10 years in K-12 classrooms and 20 years in higher education, Dr. Mark J. Reid’s teaching, advocacy, and research have focused on the areas of curriculum decision making, innovative pedagogy, and the impact of trauma on learners.

Natalia Assis, Ph.D., Harris County Department of Education

Natalia Assis earned a Ph.D. in Educational Psychology, a Master’s in Psychology, and a Master’s in Business Administration (MBA) from A&M-Commerce. Her passion for student success and higher education administration fueled her achievements in a variety of initiatives related to institutional effectiveness, research, assessment, data analysis and visualization, accreditation, and institutional continuous improvement. Natalia's academic research interests include social identity, global citizenship, human morality, trauma-informed practices, and positive psychology.




How to Cite

Brooks, T., Proctor, A. ., Reid , M. ., & Assis, N. . (2023). The Challenge of Utilizing Misconduct Data for the Assessment of a Trauma-Informed Intervention. Journal of Trauma Studies in Education, 2(1), 133–144.



Research in Progress