Disciplinary Consequence Differences in Grade 6 Students as a Function of Race, Ethnicity, and Economic Status


  • Myriam Quintero Khan Spring Independent School District, TX
  • John R. Slate Sam Houston State University




Black, Hispanic, White, in-school suspen- sion, out-of-school suspension, disciplinary alternative education program placement, inequities


In this investigation, we used Texas statewide data to determine the extent to which ineq- uities were present in the assignment of school disci- plinary consequences. Specifically examined were the assignment of in-school suspension, out-of-school sus- pension, and disciplinary alternative education pro- gram placement to grade 6 Black, Hispanic, and White students by their economic status in Texas public schools. Inferential analyses yielded statistically sig- nificant differences for each disciplinary consequence within each ethnic/racial group. Students who were economically disadvantaged received statistically sig- nificantly more instances of each disciplinary conse- quence than their same ethnic/racial peers who were not economically disadvantaged. Of note was the very high numbers of grade 6 students who were as- signed these disciplinary consequences. A clear lack of equity was demonstrated in the assignment of dis- ciplinary consequences to grade 6 Black, Hispanic, and White students by their economic status. As such, school administrators and educational leaders are urged to evaluate their own discipline programs to ascertain the degree to which they have equity in the assignment of disciplinary consequences in the stu- dents they serve.


Download data is not yet available.






Research Articles